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(Русский) ШЕДЕВРЫ ЭПОХИ РИМСКОГО БАРОККО

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Private local guides in Rome Vatican Florence Tuscany Umbria Abruzzo Campania with CAR

Adel Karanov – Contacts
+39 389 5975 184   info@rusrim.com +39 329 448 3644 

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

Private tours in English, French, Bulgarian, Russian and Italian

Adel Karanov, private art guide with car in Rome, Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo is a famous music composer in the ballet and fashion sector.

Adel Karanov touristic local art guide with car (6 years Tour Guide Experience – Degree in music composition renaissance, baroque, electronic music and classic dance) Guide in Rome, Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Campania is a famous music composer in the ballet and fashion sector in Italy, Tunisia and UK. Work in 5 languages English, Fench, Bulgarian, Russian and Italian.

адел каранов гид в рим

adel karanov guide in romeEUK 047

  1. Modern art in Slovak institute in Rome
  2. National Gallery of modern art in Rome – Giuseppe Verdi by Giovanni Boldini

Excursions in: Rome, Tivoli, Roman castles, Viterbo, Lakes and castles in central Italy, Florence, Siena and other towns in Tuscany and Umbria

Special entrance in the secret archaeological sites in Rome

I have Italian, bulgarian and eu touristic guide licence. I offer the visit of principal and rare monuments – places with Raffaello Michelangelo and I like to play the piano in the panoramical terace at Albano lake and to meet my guest with important italian people like the princes orner of the italian palazzi galleries and wine and bio food 200y old shops and restaurant around Rome,  Tuscany, Abruzzo, Umbria and Campania.

хотел Ритц в Рим

Private guide with licence in Italy, Rome, the Vatican, Florence – Tuscany, Umbria, Naples and Abruzzo. Guide with car for small groups.

Touristic guide licenses – Rome – Vatican  – Italy – Bulgaria – Europenian Union

The Italian ministery of tourism and culture – Italian guide licence for all Italy

http://www.beniculturali.it/mibac/multimedia/MiBAC/documents/1453464907948_karanov.pdf

Licensed guide Vatican, Rome and all Italy

licensed guide vatican and rome

Ministery of tourism Republic of Bulgaria

https://goo.gl/vQNnhM

Rome private guide

EU touristic guide licence – Union of Bulgarian tourist guides

http://www.bulguide.bg/eng/member.php?id=279

private guide rome

Best individual private tours in central Italy with Adel Karanov guide Departure excursions from Rome

колизей рим екскурзияfirenze s maria del fioresiena duomo foto d arte

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Discovering the secret Italy with Adel Karanov private excursions in Rome, Lazio and Tuscany

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  1. Forte piano 1722 Bartolomeo Cristofori The inventer of the piano. Original in the in the Museo Nazionale degli strumenti musicali in Rome
  2. Galleria Spada 1540 with the perspective gallery by Francesco Borromini

 

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Palazzo Colonna Roma individual tour – The private residence of the pope and princess Colonna and Gallery

 

excurions tivoli rusrimrome to tivoli tourVilla D este fontana centrale

Tivoli excursion from Rome:  Villa Adriana, Villa Gregoriana and Villa D’Este

 

Biblioteca Casanatense exclusive tours rusrimкараваджо рус рим тур

  1. The Biblioteca Casanatense library in Rome and the convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva
  2. Caravaggio – Galleria Borghese individual tour in english

 

Montemartini acea toursFE 264

Centrale Montemartini Roma – The best roman and greek collection in the electrical central Acea – Classic collection in modern ambiance from the Musei Capitolini di Roma

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The Churches, fountains and secret monuments of Rome – individual excursion in english with guide and car

 

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Tuscany individual tour from Rome with guide and car
  1. Siena from Rome excursions in english with private guide
  2. Florence tour from Rome including The Uffizi museum
  3. Capalbio excursion with private guide and car from Rome

 

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  1. Bagnoregio The magic etruscan secret town with 12 abitants in central Italy
  2. Temples and churches around the Bolsena lake. Tours in english with private guide
  3. Bolsena lake The bigest lake in Europe. Tours from Rome in english with private guide
Adel Karanov art guide and music composer

Specialized in baroque  and electronic music has contributed to various artistic projects in Italy, Tunis and Bulgaria. He is live electronic music performer and expert of classic and contemporary arts. Born in 1980 in Bulgaria, the artist moved to Italy at the age of 10. In Rome his talent was fostered by studying in the first place ballet dance in the Academy of Dance in Rome and in the second place composition in the Conservatoir of Rome and Classic School of Arts.

music studio karanovjtc price

  1. Music studio
  2. International festival of Theatre and modern arts JTC (Tunis) and won the first prize in 2007
GUCCI: Viedo with Original soft electronic music by A. Karanov

Gucci MariaPia & Adel Karanov –  The lady ho made the Italian fahion history – Photo Rome 2016
QFR 1000
Gucci MariaPia & Adel Karanov Gucci home Rome 2016QFR 1014

The two styles Karanov employs in composition include a cultured for contemporary dance, art exhibitions, films and festivals and an entertaining (soft, acousmatic, atmospheric, break, minimal house) for fashion shows, radio programmes, sound tracks and club music. By means of personalized sounds and effects like spacilization of sound and involutions of signal controls created with synth and invented by him instruments.

Tour in the MACRO Museum with Adel Karanov

Original music and dance performance by ATON Dino Verga Danza Rome Italy In the photo Luca Russo perform an contemporary dance composition by Dino Verga – Best Cunningham coreographer in Italy Music Adel Karanov

Boccaccino Macro modern art Rome toursdino verga dance tour

  1. Regina Baglioni hotel in Rome – Harp and piano performance
  2. Niki de Saint Phalle gardens museum in Capalbio Tuscany daily excursion
  3. Contemporary arts Sleepin Head by Igor Mitoraj Canary Wharf

Arpa Hotel Baglioni Roma20150923_153748modern art

Currently living in Rome, Adel distributes original electonic music in more than 60 countries in 300 online music stores such as iTunes, ExLibris.ch In 2006 the composer won a tender for music accompaniment of a Gucci fashion advertisiment. In 2007 and 2009 Adel Karanov took part in the international festival of Theatre and modern arts JTC (Tunis) and won the first prize in 2007. In November, 2009, his track LE VENT DE DESERT and biography were included into the Italian edition of the book about the best Italian composers of `XX (Scelsi, Berlinguer, Fabriciani) ENCHANTMENT OF MANY WORLDS accompanied by a CD available on the market in Italy and in the rest of Europe in the near future.

arte classicaadel karanov istituto di cultura slovacco Roma

VIDEO of The TOP CENTRAL ART TOWNS and MONUMENTS in ITALYwith original soft music by A. Karanov: ROME, TIVOLI, ROMAN CASTLES, VITERBO, ORVIETO (Umbria), AREZZO (Umbria), SIENA, FLORENCE, CHIANTI, ARGENTARIO (Tuscany), AMALFI and POMPEII (Campania)

Adel has participated in various artistic projects.

MUSIC GENERES:

  • AVANTGUARDE:
    Different style music for contemporary dance company and video art installation.
  • CLUB MUSIC:
    Breakbeat
    Electro house
    House Minimal Techno
    Trance
    IDM and Soft electronic music
    Soft fashion styles
  • SOUNDTRACKs:
    Tonal classic instrumental and ethnic (arabic and asian music)

Adel Karanov is the author of:

SOUNDTRACKS

2008 – “ROMA” Direction Giorgio DeFinis, Production SD Cinematografica
2007 – “Megacity diaries, Mumbai” Direction Giorgio DeFinis, Production SD Cinematografica
2007 – “GUCCI web spots 2007” Filmaster production www.gucci.com/fr/video/indy-bag/
2005 – “ROMA IN CORTO” Direction Giovanni Caloro
2005 – “LE 3 BANANE” Direction Giovanni Caloro
2005 – “YARRIYA” Direction Giovanni Caloro
2005 – “WHISPERS + VISIONS” Direction Giovanni Caloro

MUSIC FOR CONTEMPORARY DANCE COMPANY

2011 Colorate revolutions by Paolo Santilli – Balletto di Roma

2006 – “CORPO AVI” video Giovanni Caloro, Choreography Luca Russo, videodance Il Coreografo Elettronico Festival
2006 – “DUENDE” Choreography Mauro Astolfi, Spellbound Dance Company
2006 – “THE LAST BEAT” Choreography Vanessa Tamburi, live video Andrea Paciotto (Fucina.off festival Spoleto 2006)
2005 – “SHOWERTIME” Choreography Luca Russo (Aton-Dino Verga Danza)
2005 – “GAP” Choreography Paolo Santilli, video Giovanni Caloro videodance
2004 – “CORPO .jpg” Choreography Luca Russo, video Giovanni Caloro (Aton-Dino Verga Danza) Journes Theatrales de Carthage 2005

LIVE ELECTRONIC MUSIC CONCERTS

2007 – Live electronic music organised by 13me Journées Théâtrales de Carthage et l’Institut Supérieur de Musique de Tunis

2007 – He has performed as live electronic music at the Embassy of the Slovak Republic in Rome
2007 – Eto` club Rome
2006 – Linux club Rome
2006 – Sotto sotto club Rome

HONORS

2007 december, Prize winner at the International Festival of Theatre “13me Journées Théâtrales de Carthage-2007″, held in Tunis and supported by the Tunisian Ministry of Culture.

TV and RADIO

2015 sound design for the Vatican radio programs

2008 – Vatican Radio music section, Musica Acusmatica directed by Adel Karanov

2007 december – Rai Italian National TV Participation
interviews with Adel Karanov, Lidiya Svirska, Luca Vittucci in the innovative and educational Italian RaiTV programme ” Art News” made by Paola Orlandini and Luigi Ceccarelli, about contemporary art, research and tecnology.
(from min.19.30.to min.21.40.)

2007 – Vatican Radio music section DIAPASON directed by Stefano Corato
2006 – Vatican Radio Bulgarian section directed by Dimitar Gancev

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Dance
1992-2000 -National Academy of Dance and Classic Choreutic High school, both in Rome.
Teachers: M. Tuccio Rigano pas de deux et repertoir, M. Gloria Giordano – ancient dances, M. Massimo Coen and M. Mauro Baggella – music theory, Renato Bossa – music history M. Francesca Falcone – dance theory.Dance stage: M. Margherita Traianova. M. Valia Verbeva and M. Vera Kirova.

Music
1998-2002 Conservatory of Rome “S. Cecilia” “Experimental Course in Composition”
M. Roberto Pacella, M. Gabriele Arrigo, M. Anna Maria DeChiara, M. Claudio Dall’albero.

2004 – Conservatory “Ottorino Respighi” of Latina
M. Paolo Rotili, M Alberto Meoli, M. Maurizio Furlani, M. Mariantonietta Caroprese.
Diploma in composition at the Conservatory “Ottorino Respighi” in 2004.

BALLET PERFORMANCES

10/07/2009 ITALY
“THE LAST BEAT”
FLUSSO DANCE PROJECT
Choreography Vanessa Tamburi
Music Adel Karanov
live video Andrea Paciotto
RASSEGNA INVITO ALLA DANZA ROMA
Teatro Villa Pamphilj

07/02/2009 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Insallation video Giovanni Caloro
ROMA – Teatro Quarticciolo

01/08/2008 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Insallation video Giovanni Caloro
Vignale FONDAZIONE TEATRO NUOVO
30° Festival internazionale di Danza e Arti Integrate
www.vignaledanza.com/programma.htm

“DUENDE”
Spellbound Dance Company
Choreography Mauro Astolfi
Music Adel Karanov
23/01/2007 Siena
12/11/2006 Palermo
13/07/2006 Paestum
07/07/2006 Chioggia
28/06/2006 Firenze
28/05/2006 Saronno, Teatro Giuditta Pasta
22/05/2006 Teramo, Teatro Comunale
20/05/2006 Aquila, Teatro San Filippo
17/05/2006 Castiglioncello, Castello Pasquini

11,12,13/05/2005 ITALY
“CORPO AVI”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Palazzo delle arti Napoli
FESTIVAL INTERNAZIONALE
“Il coreografo elettronico”

30/03/2006 ITALY
“DUENDE”
Spellbound Dance Company
Choreography Mauro Astolfi
Music Adel Karanov
Caserta, Teatro Comunale

23/03/2006 ITALY
“DUENDE”
Spellbound Dance Company
Choreography Mauro Astolfi
Music Adel Karanov
Pisa, Teatro Verdi
www.teatrodipisa.pi.it

25-26/02/2006 ITALY
“THE LAST BEAT”
OFFUCINA ECLECTIC ARTS
Choreography Vanessa Tamburi
Music Adel Karanov
live video Andrea Paciotto
FUCINA.OFF FESTIVAL SPOLETO OPERA
Teatro Caio Melisso
www.offucina.com

29-3/12/2005 TUNIS
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Insallation video Giovanni Caloro
Journées Théâtrales de Carthage
أيام قرطاج المسرحية

19-21/07/2005 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
video insallation Giovanni Caloro
Teatro Furio Camillo Roma

09/06/2005 NEDERLAND
“SHOWERTIME”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Overtoom 301
Amsterdam Sub Culture
squat.net/overtoom/

07/04/2005 Eλλάδα GREECE
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Municipal Theatre of Volos
Δημοτικό Θέατρο Βόλου

16/12/2004 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Napoli, Teatro Nuovo

ROMA

ROMA Private car tours
ROME PRIVATE TOURS

AROUND ROME PRIVATE GUIDES

VATICAN PRIVATE TOUR – VIDEO with Original music by Adel Karanov guide in The Vatican City

TUSCANY PRIVATE GUIDES

Tuscany private car tour - Chianti Toscana Italia
Tuscany private tour
Art tours in Rome with local guide and car

touristic guide florence tuscany

Individual excursions with english guide in Rome, Vatican, Modern art museum, Tivoli, Tarquinia, Florence, Siena and other central Italy towns

Car excursions with private guide in Rome and Tuscany
Reservation contacts, excursion in Rome –  Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria
+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

Excursion of Rome for children

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

Excursion of Rome for children

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ROMA

ROMA Private car tours
ROME PRIVATE TOURS

ROME PRIVATE TOURS

Individual excursions with english guide in Rome, Vatican, Night Rome, Tivoli, Tarquinia, Florence, Siena and other central Italy towns

Car excursions with private guide in Rome and Tuscany
Reservation contacts, excursion in Rome –  Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria
+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

 

Sightseeing car excursion of Rome

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

Sightseeing car excursion of Rome

Individual car excursion in Rome with English private guide and car Eur 60/h Max 6 pax

Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.

колизей рим екскурзияroman walls tourssanta cecilia rome exclusive exursionsQuirinale Roma

VIDEO of ROME SIGHTSEEING CAR TOUR – MONUMENTS OF ROME

ROMA Aria Italiana modale Stile `500 by Adel Karanov – Soprano Mila Pavlova

Exclusive excursions in Rome

A one-day guided excursion experience  lasting minimum 3 hours or daily tour BY CAR for groups of up to 5 people.

Tour of main squares, fountains, churches and museums of Rome selected for you. The tour includes short walks on foot for visits of monuments and stops for taking pictures and a lunch or a coffee break.The sequence of monuments and their choice will display a historical and artistic evolution of the Eternal City. As well as a perfect overview of ​​the different types of styles in the arts of architecture and sculpture and painting. Many monuments, private art collections, entrances to palaces are offered exclusively by RUSRIM. tour guides.

Inside the guided tour experience you can choose to visit important archaeological areas like dungeons, catacombs, ancient walls, sacred places and secret areas accessible to limited number of people. The collection of Greek and Roman classical sculptures offering sculptures of emperors, athletes, mythological figures and ancient deities can be viewed in an exclusive way. During the guided tour you can have a break for tasting of local food preferred by Roman elite. In summer the most popular organic ice cream shop in Rome is a place to drop in.

Република Римfinta prospettiva di borromini tous of romeLsthsrhyРим С Мария на Ангелите

Rome individual excursion – list of monuments

Rome private excursion with art guide and car
  1. Piazza di Spagna -Spanish square
    fontane-rom is one of the most famous squares in Rome. In the middle of the square is the famous Fontana della Barcaccia, dating to the beginning of the baroque period, sculpted by Pietro Bernini and his son, the more famous Gian Lorenzo Bernini.The side near Via Frattina is overlooked by the two façades (the main one, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, and the side one created by Francesco Borromini) of the Palazzo di Propaganda Fide.                                                                                                                                                                       
  2. Pantheon
    panthoncommissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). The present building was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. He retained Agrippa’s original inscription, which has confused its date of construction.


  3. Piazza Navona square
    piazza navona romaIt is built on the site of the Stadium of Domitian, built in 1st century AD, and follows the form of the open space of the stadium.
    It features important sculptural and architectural creations: in the center stands the famous Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi or Fountain of the Four Rivers (1651) by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, topped by the Obelisk of Domitian, brought in pieces from the Circus of Maxentius; the church of Sant’Agnese in Agone by Francesco Borromini, Girolamo Rainaldi, Carlo Rainaldi and others.


  4. Piazza Barberini square – Fontana del Tritone or
    piazza barberini - bernini fontana - RomaTriton Fountain (1642–3) sculpted by Bernini. – Palazzo Barberini  It houses the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica. The sloping site had formerly been occupied by a garden-vineyard of the Sforza family, in which a palazzetto had been built in 1549. The sloping site passed from one cardinal to another during the sixteenth century, with no project fully getting off the ground. When Cardinal Alessandro Sforza met financial hardships, the still semi-urban site was purchased in 1625 by Maffeo Barberini, of the Barberini family, who became Pope Urban VIII. The rise of the Barberini, one of the most powerful of the Roman papal families, is closely connected to the ecclesiastical career of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, the fiarure Pope, who was elected with the name Urban VIII in 1623. The family’s prestige in the papal city was from that moment secured and culminated in the construcrion in the grand style of the palazzo, which was to become one of the most admired in Rome at the time. Some of the main artists of the age were involved in the building and decoration of the prestigious residence: Carlo Maderno, Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini sought to outdo each other in a contest of elegance. as did Pietro da Cortona and Andrea Sacchi in their paintings for the palazzo. Everything, from the architecture to the magnificence of the frescoes and interior Furnishings had to reflect the authority and affluence of the line which had chosen this way of leaving an indelible mark on the heart of the city. In 1629, the year in which Maderno died, the palazzo had ho ever only just been begun, so the building was then entrusted to Gian Lorenzo Bernini. the ofi‘icial artiSI par excellence of the Barberinian court.

  5. Michelangelo MosesSan Pietro in Vincoli, Moses von Michelangelo Having spent a considerable time on producing numerous drawing and studies, as well as choosing the marbles in Carrara, the sculptor was forced to abandon the project and concentrate firstly on the work in Saint Peter’s. Michelangelo undertook to finish this second project within seve years, but, thirty years would pass before the end product of the tomb in San Peter in vincoli was archived on this having only been resumed in 1532 after long interruption.The figure is seated, in the face contracted in concentration and turned towards the left, the right foot rest on the ground, while the left leg is raised with only the point of the foot resting on the base. The biblical figure has a majestic, solmn air spite of the prevasive feeling of dynamism and witheld energy.

  6. Palazzo del Quirinale
    Quirinale RomaOfficial residence of the President of the Italian Republic, was built in 1583 by Pope Gregory XIII as a papal summer residence.The Palace was also used as the location for papal conclaves in 1823, 1829, 1831, and 1846. It served as a papal residence and housed the central offices responsible for the civil government of the Papal States until 1870.




  7. Piazza della Repubblica  – Piazza Esedra The former name of the piazza, Piazza dell’Esedra, still very common today, originates in the large exedra of the baths of Diocletian, which gives the piazza its shape
    Република Рим

    Fontana delle Naiadi  – Republic square in Rome The fountain in this square was originally the fountain of the Acqua Pia (connected to the aqua Marcia aqueduct), commissioned this site by Pope Pius IX in 1870.  The naiads represented are the Nymph of the Lakes (recognisable by the swan she holds), the Nymph of the Rivers (stretched out on a monster of the rivers), the Nymph of the Oceans (riding a horse symbolising of the sea), and the Nymph of the Underground Waters (leaning over a mysterious dragon). In the centre is Rutelli’s Glauco group (1911/12), symbolizing the dominion of the man over natural force and replacing a previous sculpture.


    – Basilica Santa Maria degli angeli e dei Martiri – The Basilica of St. Mary of the Angels and the Martyrs – Beatissimae Virgini et omnium Angelorum et Martyrum
    С Мария на Ангелите Рим Еседраbuilt inside the frigidarium of the Baths of Diocletian in the Piazza della Repubblica (part of the Terme di Diocleziano emperor) by Michelangelo Buonarroti. The thermae of Diocletian dominated the Quirinal Hill with their ruined mass and had successfully resisted Christianization. Michelangelo Buonarroti worked from 1563 to 1564 to adapt a section of the remaining structure of the baths to enclose a church. At Santa Maria degli Angeli, Michelangelo achieved an unexampled sequence of shaped architectural spaces with few precedents or followers. There is no true facade; the simple entrance is set within one of the coved apses of a main space of the thermae. The plan is developed from a Greek cross, with a transept so dominant, with its cubical chapels at each end, that the effect is of a transverse nave. 


  8. Basilica di San Giovanni Laterano – Lateran Basilica – The Papal Archbasilica of St. John in the Lateran

    San Giovanni Laterano Roma - Sightseeing car excursion of Rome
    It is the oldest and ranks first among the four Papal Basilicas (all of which are located in Rome), being the oldest church in the West and having the Cathedra of the Bishop of Rome. It has the title of ecumenical mother church among Roman Catholics. the Archbasilica, as indicated by its full title (provided below) was originally dedicated to Christ the Savior, with the co-dedications to the two St. Johns being made centuries later. As the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, it ranks above all other churches in the Catholic Church, including St. Peter’s Basilica. For that reason, unlike all other Catholic basilicas, it is titled Archbasilica. 


  9. Colosseo – Anfiteatro Flavio – Amphitheatrum Flavium
    Colosseum art guide has conditioned Rome’s urban landscape and it still dominates the ancient center. It was the first amphiteatheatre to be built in Rome in the form of a monument. The Flavian Amphiteathre was superior in dimensions and monumentality to all those previously built. The colosseum was furnished with a sophisticated system of drains with fed the bath and numerous fountains required to keep the vast audience cool. Tn the Colosseum there were various kinds of enterteinment like fightsbetween gladiators, exotic animals, naval battles, and capital punishment executions. During the renaissance the Colosseum has been one of the monuments which symbolise the grandeur of antique Rome.


  10. Arco di Costantino – Arch of Costantine
    arco di constantinowas well situated to celebrating the ventures and victories, fristly of the consult in the Republican age and later of the emperors.  It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I’s victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312.



  11. San Clemente and Catacombs In the basilica

    san clemente - history Rome guidewitch was built at the beginning of the 12th century, the ancient painting have survived and most of the mosaics are intact.  On the whole, the frescoes constituite a more sophisticated version of catacomb painting, both in their of the expressive and dynamic line and in their revival, in the early Christian sense of decorative motifs. These frescoes were rediscovered during excavations carried out in the new medieval church, at the end of the 19th century, and constitute important evidence of figurative Roman culturenbetween the 11th and 12th centuries, as well as providing information on the original appearance of the early Christian basilica. The cycle introduces new features in Roman painting at the turn of the 11th century: narrative immediacy, the expressive distortion caused by the emphasis of emotions. and the appearance of naturalisric colouring. On the whole, the frescoes consritute a more sophisticated version oFcatacomb painting, both in their use of the expressive and dynamic line and in their revival, in the early Chrisrian sense, of decorative morifs, which are inserted in preordained architectural Frameworks. In the bowl-shaped apse there are extraordinarily well-preserved mosaics representing the Cross as Tree of Life, at the top of the hill of Paradise. There are depictions of the doves, symbols of the soul, and, at the base of the Cross, there are two elegant deer drinking from the river and a phoenix, symbols of immortality. The central scene of the Crucifixion combines a more modern.

  12. Sant’Angelo Castle – Castello Sant’Angelo
    Castel S Angelo

    The Tiber is dominated by the impressive Mole of Hadrian, built at the behest of the Emperor, probably designed by him and conceived as his personal mausoleum and tomb. Begun in about 123 AD and finished a year after the death of the Emperor by Antoninus Pius, it became the burial place of the Roman emperors up to Caracalla. To reach the mausoleum Hadrian had a bridge specially built opposite the entrance to the majestic building. The mausoleum was in the form of a square at whose corners there were statuary groups. Today the corners of the massive structure are reinforced by bastions erected in the course of the 16th century on the Pope’s wishes, and there are monuments which increase the security and isolation of the mausoleum, which had the appearance of a small fortified village. The tour of the museum inside includes superb cycles of frescoes from the School of Raphael, such as the frieze by Perin del Vaga recounting the tale of Cupid and Psyche, from 1545-1547, and the frescoes of the apartment of Pope Paul III which are attributed to the young Pellegrino Tibaldi.

  13. The Palatine Hill – Palatino –  According to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive.
    Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people have lived there since approximately 10,000 BC. According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine. Many affluent Romans of the Republican period (c.509 BC – 44 BC) had their residences there. During the Empire (27 BC – 476 AD) several emperors resided there; in fact, the ruins of the palaces of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), Tiberius (14 – 37 AD) and Domitian (81 – 96 AD) can still be seen. Augustus also built a temple to Apollo here, beside his own palace. The Palatine Hill was also the site of the festival of the Lupercalia.

  14. Circus maximus- Circo Massimo 
    circo massimo e palatino - Sightseeing car excursion of RomeThe Circus was Rome’s largest venue for ludi, public games connected to Roman religious festivals. Ludi were sponsored by leading Romans or the Roman state for the benefit of the Roman people (populus Romanus) and gods. During the Republic some Circus events, however, seem to have been relatively small and intimate affairs. In 167 BC, “flute players, scenic artists and dancers” performed on a temporary stage, probably erected between the two central seating banks. Others were enlarged at enormous expense to fit the entire space. A venatio held there in 169 BC, one of several in the 2nd century, employed “63 leopards and 40 bears and elephants”, with spectators presumably kept safe by a substantial barrier.


  15.  Appia anticaThe Appian Waywas 
    one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy. Its importance is indicated by its common name, recorded by Statius:
    Appia teritur regina longarum viarum
    “the Appian way is the queen of the long roads”
    appia antica
    Appia Antica

    Appia Antica - Rome private guide


    The road is named after Appius Claudius Caecus, the Roman censor who began and completed the first section as a military road to the south in 312 BC during the Samnite Wars.
    – Circo di Massenzio

    Circo di Massenzio - Sightseeing excursion of Rome
    Appia antica - Sightseeing car excursion of Rome
    – Appia Antica Roma

  16. Museo delle mura Aureliane – The Aurelian Walls museum – Roman walls 271 AD and 275 AD The walls enclosed all the seven hills of Rome plus the Campus Martius and, on the right bank of the Tiber, the Trastevere district. The full circuit ran for 19 kilometres (12 mi) surrounding an area of 13.7 square kilometres (5.3 sq mi). The construction of the walls was by far the largest building project that had taken place in Rome for many decades, and their construction was a concrete statement of the continued strength of Rome. Aurelian’s construction of the walls as an emergency measure was a reaction to the barbarian invasion of 270; the historian Aurelius Victor states explicitly that the project aimed to alleviate the city’s vulnerability.
    museo delle mura aureliane -rome tour museo delle mura aureliane roma
  17. Avenitino hill – Colle Aventino According to Roman tradition, the Aventine was not included within Rome’s original foundation, and lay outside the city’s ancient sacred boundary (pomerium). The Roman historian Livy reports that Ancus Marcius, Rome’s fourth king, defeated the Latins of Politorium, and resettled them there.[9] The Roman geographer Strabo credits Ancus with the building of a city wall to incorporate the Aventine.[10] Others credit the same wall to Rome’s sixth king, Servius Tullius. The remains known as the Servian Wall used stone quarried at Veii, which was not conquered by Rome until c.393 BC, so the Aventine might have been part-walled, or an extramural suburb.

    Basilica di Santa Sabina and Porta lignea di Santa Sabina
    santa sabina basilica rome touris the oldest extant Roman basilica in Rome that preserves its original colonnaded rectangular plan and architectural style. Its decorations have been restored to their original restrained design. Santa Sabina was built by Peter of Illyria, a Dalmatian priest, between 422 and 432[1] near a temple of Juno on the Aventine Hill in Rome. The church was built on the site of early Imperial houses one of which is said to be of Sabina a Roman matron originally from Avezzano in the Abruzzo region of Italy.


  18. The orange garden – Giardino degli aranci The park offers an excellent view of the city. The garden, as it is today, was designed in 1932 by Raffaele De Vico. The garden, whose name comes from the many bitter orange trees growing there, extends over the area of an ancient fortress built near the basilica of Santa Sabina by the Savelli family between 1285 and 1287, which, in turn, was built over an old castle constructed by the Crescentii in the tenth century.– The rose garden – Giardino delle rose
    rose garden rome tour

    – Order of Malta square – Sovrano militare ordine di Malta Roma – Piazza Cavalieri di Malta 

  19. Pyramid of Cestius – Piramide di Caio Cestio – ancient pyramid in Rome built about 18 BC–12 BC as a tomb for Gaius Cestius, a magistrate and member of one of the four great religious corporations in Rome, the Septemviri Epulonum.
    piramide cestiaIt should first be pointed out that the Pyramid of Cestius was not the only Egyptian-style pyramid in Rome. There was also another pyramid, known as the ‘Pyramid of Romulus’. Incidentally, during the Middle Ages, the Pyramid of Cestius was known as the ‘Pyramid of Remus’, and it was believed that these two pyramids were the tombs of the legendary founders of Rome. The larger ‘Pyramid of Romulus’, located between the Vatican and Hadrian’s Mausoleum (known also as the Castel Sant’Angelo), was dismantled sometime during the 16 th century so that its marble could be used in the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica.

  20. Centrale Montemartini – Musei Capitolini – The best roman art collections and Industrial archaeology in Rome
    FE 435 FE 267 FE 341 FE 389

  21. Best Roman ice cream shop and the old bar pasticceria close to the Pyramid Caio Cestio
    Gelateria Rome private tour Rome exclusive tour

  22. Special Italian food shop in Rome
    italian food - private car tours in Rome



  23. Piazza Venezia Venezia square   It takes its name from the Palazzo Venezia, built by the Venetian Cardinal, Pietro Barbo – later Pope Paul II , alongside the church of Saint Mark, the patron saint of  Venice. The Palazzo Venezia served as the embassy of the Republic of Venice in Rome.

    10001517_81839


  24. Fontana delle Tartarughe – The Fontane delle Tartarughe

    Fontana delle tartarughe Roma
    (The Turtle Fountain) is a fountain of the late Italian Renaissance, located in Piazza Mattei, in the Sant’Angelo district of Rome, Italy. It was built between 1580 and 1588 by the architect Giacomo della Porta and the sculptor Taddeo Landini. The bronze turtles around the upper basin, usually attributed either to Gian Lorenzo Bernini or Andrea Sacchi, were added in either 1658 or 1659 when the fountain was restored.


  25. Mercati Traiani Trajan’s Market
    Mercati Traiani - Sightseeing car excursion of Rome
    is a large complex of ruins located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali. Thought to be the world’s oldest shopping mall, the arcades in Trajan’s Market are now believed by many to be administrative offices for Emperor Trajan.

    Trajan’s Market - car excursion of Rome
    The shops and apartments were built in a multi-level structure, and it is still possible to visit several of the levels. Highlights include delicate marble floors and the remains of a library.
    Trajan’s Market - Rome car excursion


  26. Campidoglio hill – Piazza del Campidoglio – Collis Capitōlīnus
    campidoglio rome private toursIt was the citadel (equivalent of the ancient Greek acropolis) of the earliest Romans. The existing design of the Piazza del Campidoglio and the surrounding palazzi was created by Renaissance artist and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536–1546. At the height of his fame, he was commissioned by the Farnese Pope Paul III, who wanted a symbol of the new Rome to impress Charles V, who was expected in 1538.
  27. Foro Romano – Roman forum panoramic view 
    Roman forum - Guide of Rome


  28. Piazza della Bocca della Verità
    piazza bocca della verita - piazza bocca della veritaThe square lies in the ancient area of the Forum Boarium, just in front of the Tiber Island; it takes its name from the Bocca della Verità. The fountain in front of the two temples, called Fountain of the Tritons, released by Carlo Bizzaccheri. Besides the church, dating back to the late Middle Ages, the square houses the Arcus Argentariorum, the Arch of Janus, the Temple of Hercules Victor and the Temple of Portunus, a deity related to the ancient river harbour.

    – Tempio di Portuno
    tempio di portuno Rome car excursion Its Ionic order has been much admired, drawn and engraved and copied since the 16th century (see illustration, right).  The temple owes its state of preservation from its being converted to use as a church in 872 and rededicated to Santa Maria Egyziaca (Saint Mary of Egypt).
    – Tempio di Ercole Vincitore – The Temple of Hercules Victor – Hercules the Winner or Hercules Olivarius – Dating from the later 2nd century BC By 1132 the temple had been converted to a church, known as Santo Stefano alle Carozze (St. Stephen ‘of the carriages).

    – Fontana dei TritoniThis fountain should be distinguished from the similarly named nearby Triton Fountain (Fontana del Tritone) by Bernini. The fountain was completed in 1715 by architect Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri, during the works for the accommodation of the square in front of the basilica.

  29. Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Tras Tevere
    santa cecilia rome exclusive exursions
    This basilica was built by Pope Paschal I during the ninth century; the portico, bell tower and cloisrer in the right wing of the convent were added between the end of the l2tl’l and early 13th centuries; as early as 1540 the church began to be the object of numerous reStoration operations up to the most radical one of 1724, executed at the will of cardinal Francesco Acquaviva. The monumental entrance is attributed to Ferdinando Fuga (1741-1742) The portico in front of the facade (somewhat retouched during the 18th century) srill has its ancient columns, the original architrave with its mosaic decorations, tombstones and medieval fragments. Inside there are three naves: the central nave, with its lowered barrel vault terminating in an apse, is separated from the side aisles by pilasters that incorporate the ancient columns. The tabernacle by Arnolfo di Cambio (1293) at the center of the presbytery is a true masterpiece of Gothic architeCtute and sculpture. Among the marble Statues, Saint Cecilia by Stefano Madetno (1600), portrayed in the act of recognition, is particularly worthy of admiration. The L’nivma/firdgemem frescos by Pietro Cavallini in the Nuns’ Choir, built on the internal face of the facade, are considered to be his masterpiece and the mosr significant work of Roman painting prior to Giotto.


  30. Janiculum Hill – Colle del Gianicolo – Rome panoramic view
    panoramic rome car excursions

  31. Tempietto del Bramante – Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio

    Tempietto del Bramante Roma - Car tours in rome Tempietto del Bramante - Rome tours and guide
    1502 Temple of Bramante is considered one of the first great building of the high Reinassence. It is evidently based on the study of the rules of harmony of the Roman Vitruvius, who advised the use of the Doric order of columns for buildings dedicated to masculine divinitics or mythological figures famous for their sum and courage. The architeCt Bramante did in Fact use the Doric order for the tempietto. giving it an air of rigour and economy, which is also due to limited use of excessive decoration and the sober harmony of the volumes.

    – Fontana Paolina o Fontana dell’Acqua Paola
The Roman fountains video – Original music by Adel Karanov RusRim.com Art guides in Rome

Roman Elegies I

Tell me you stones, O speak, you towering palaces!

Streets, say a word! Spirit of this place, are you dumb?

All things are alive in your sacred walls

Eternal Rome, it’s only for me all is still.

Who’ll whisper to me, at what window

Will I see the sweet thing who’ll kindle me now, and quicken?

Already I guess the ways, walking to her and from her,

Ever and always I’ll go, while sweet time slips by.

I’m gazing at church and palace, ruin and column,

Like a serious man making sensible use of a journey,

But soon it will happen, and all will be one vast temple,

Love’s temple, receiving its new initiate.

Though you’re a whole world, Rome, still, without Love,

The world isn’t the world, and Rome can’t be Rome.

 — — — — —

CARAVAGGIO IN ROME

San Luigi dei Francesi – Privat tour – Rome car excursions

CARAVAGGIO CALLING OF SAINT MATTHEW
CARAVAGGIO CALLING OF SAINT MATTHEW

Thanks to the mediation of Cardinal Del Monte from the July of 1599 to that of 1600, Caravaggio painted the two side canvases for the chapel of Cardinal Contarelli in San Luigi dei Francesi, his first public commission. The Calling and Martyrdom of Saint Matthew were both demanding in terms of the depiction of a story in action and the numerous figures. The symbolic role of the light, coupled with the natural illumination of the chapel, lends unity to the whole. With these canvases Caravaggio brings contemporary reality into a sacred scene and into a church chapel for she first time. Characters dressed in the current style participate in the sacred event as they go about their daily life, intent on tavern games. The first canvas to be finished was the Calling. Caravaggio constructs the scene around the gesture of Christ, who points towards Matthew and whose hand position is mirrored by the latter’s. The two groups are unified by the shaft of light, whose origin is outside the field of vision, above the head of Jesus. The light is both divine .d natural and also serves as an efficacious stylistic expedient to emphasise the evident contrast between the modern clothes of Matthew and his companions and the few divine attributes of the apostle, who is barefoot and wrapped in a large cloak of antique style. In the use of the Martyrdom, the focal point of the scene is the executioner, who is in the act of striking the martyr. The other characters are placed around the central figure, gradually going further back into the bare space which is the scene of the action. Caravaggio freezes the dramatic moment before the death by means of the light. This is concentrated on the naked body of the executioner poised to strike and on the angel who proffers the palm of martyrdom to the saint. Once it was placed on the altar of the chapel, the altarpiece of Saint Matthew and the Angel, which was done in three and a half months in 1602, was, according to Bellori: otaken away by the priests, who said that the figure had

Electronic music in Rome by Adel Karanov composer and guide in Rome 

ROMA

ROMA Private car tours
ROME PRIVATE TOURS

ROME PRIVATE TOURS

Individual excursions with english guide in Rome, Vatican, Night Rome, Tivoli, Tarquinia, Florence, Siena and other central Italy towns

Car excursions with private guide in Rome and Tuscany
Reservation contacts, excursion in Rome –  Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria
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Sightseeing car excursion of Rome and Vatican

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
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Individual and private sightseeing excursion in Rome and Vatican – private guide with car

A one-day guided excursion experience in Rome lasting minimum 3 hours or more BY CAR for individuals and groups of up to 5 people.

English private guide and car in Rome – Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax

Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.

 Aria Italiana by Adel Karanov – Soprano Mila Pavlova
ROME ITALIY Original music and video Rusrim.com

музей спада рим екскурзияroman walls toursMercati traiani Romaватикана екскурзия рус рим

Rome and Vatican 3/h or Daily excursions with private guide
Excursion of main squares, fountains, churches and museums of Rome and others, selected for you. The tour includes short walks on foot for visits of monuments and stops for taking pictures and a lunch or a coffee break. The sequence of monuments and their choice will display a historical and artistic evolution of the Eternal City. As well as a perfect overview of ​​the different types of styles in the arts of architecture and sculpture and painting. Many monuments, private art collections, entrances to palaces are offered exclusively by RUSRIM. tour guides.

c1galleria spada rome exculive tourstrevitempietto del bramante

Rome and Vatican monuments in this car tours with guide min 3/h or Rome Daily excursion 5-6/h

Individual Rome and Vatican tour: Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax + Guide with car

Piazza di Spagna – Spanish square, Pantheon, Piazza Navona square, Piazza Barberini square, Fontana del Tritone,  Palazzo Barberini, Palazzo del Quirinale, Piazza della Repubblica,Piazza Esedra, Fontana delle Naiadi, Republic square in Rome, Basilica Santa Maria degli angeli e dei Martiri, Basilica di San Giovanni Laterano, Colosseo – Anfiteatro Flavio, Arco di Costantino – Arch of Costantine, San Clemente and Catacombs In the basilica,  The Palatine Hill, Circus maximus, Museo delle mura Aureliane, Avenitino hill, Basilica di Santa Sabina and Porta lignea di Santa Sabina, The orange garden, Pyramid of Cestius, Centrale Montemartini, Best Roman ice cream shop, Piazza Venezia Venezia square, Fontana delle Tartarughe, Mercati Traiani – Trajan’s Market, Campidoglio hill – Piazza del Campidoglio,Foro Romano – Roman forum panoramic view,Piazza della Bocca della Verità, Tempio di Portuno,Fontana dei Tritoni,Basilica di Santa Cecilia in Tras Tevere, Janiculum Hill, Tempietto del Bramante,Fontana Paolina o Fontana dell’Acqua Paola

Video Private tour of Rome – Original electronic music by Adel Karanov Rome private guide Rusrim.com

Excursion Rome and Vatican – List of monuments

Rome and Vatican excursion with private guide and car in english, french, bulgarian, russian, and ukrainian
  • Piazza Barberini square – Fontana del Tritone or Triton Fountain (1642–3) sculpted by Bernini – Baroque Rome – and Hotel Bernini

 piazza barberini - bernini fontana - Roma PALAZZO BARBERINI The rise of the Barberini, one of the most powerful of the Roman papal families, is closely connected to the ecclesiastical career of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, the fiarure Pope, who was elected with the name Urban VIII in 1623. The family’s prestige in the papal city was from that moment secured and culminated in the construcrion in the grand style of the palazzo, which was to become one of the most admired in Rome at the time. Some of the main artists of the age were involved in the building and decoration of the prestigious residence: Carlo Maderno, Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini sought to outdo each other in a contest of elegance. as did Pietro da Cortona and Andrea Sacchi in their paintings for the palazzo. Everything, from the architecture to the magnificence of the frescoes and interior Furnishings had to reflect the authority and affluence of the line which had chosen this way of leaving an indelible mark on the heart of the city. In 1629, the year in which Maderno died, the palazzo had however only just been begun, so the building was then entrusted to Gian Lorenzo Bernini. the ofi‘icial artiSI par excellence of the Barberinian court. He saw the construction through, collaborating at first with Francesco Borromini, in whose hands, according to Baldinucci, Maderno had left «the entire care of the palazzo» and who, Still in the words of the biographer did «all the designs for the said building». One of the most elaborate residences of Baroque Rome, and a refined theatre for the sumptuous feaSts organised by the family, grew from the meeting ofthese three masters. For inStance, on the evening of the 28 February 1656, the Cavallerizza courtyard, on the North side of the building and now part of Via Barberini, was host to a marvellous entertainment given in honour of Cristina of Sweden: a colourful merry-go—round with an elegant parade of carriages and ephemeral displays devised by Giovan Francesco Grimaldi, the family scenographer, and a Fesrive throng.

 

piazza navona roma Thanks to its original elongated form. Piazza Navona deserves a foremost place among Rome’s numerous hiStorical piazzas. Built on the site of the former Domitian Stadium, it traditionally accommodated the market and popular shows. During the 17th century it became the city’s salon, partly because of the presence of Palazzo Pamphilj, and it was embellished with further monuments and buildings. These enhance the spatial homogeneity which is owed to the regularity of the architecrural features packed into the unbroken ranks of walls and facades, and to the chromatic unity. A result of the urban plans For the piazza under the patronage of Innocent X Pamphilj, who was responsible For the complete reorganisation ofthc area and the demolition of some blocks, was the concave facade of Sant’Agnese. The work of Borromini, it merges with the walls surrounding the piazza, copying the essential arehitecrural morifs and presenting an emblematic example of dynamic integration between the building and the space in front of it, which acts as an cxrension to the church and seems to disappear into it. In the l yout of the piazza, a role of no lesser importance is played by the three fountains which serve to break up the huge horizontal space into four distinct areas. The focus is the symbolic and actual centre of the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers), the work of Gian Lorenw Bernini. It is a spectacular allegory of the worldly presrige of the Pamphilj: an aerial «natural grotto». The four springs of faraway rivers spout from it and it is studded with exoric plants and animals. It acts as a base for the Egyptian obelisk crowned with a clove. the symbol of the Pamphin and the Holy Spirit.


  • Visit of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome

     – churches and catacombs – Christians Rome excursion

 

snta maria maggiore Roma - Guide in Rome

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore

santa maria maggiore basilica - Rome tours

Interior – Basilica di Santa aria Maggiore

 

  • Fontana di Trevi – The Trevi fountain 1629 designed by Italian architect Nicola The aqueduct served the hot Baths of Agrippa, and Rome, for over four hundred years. Salvi and completed by Pietro Bracci

     TreviThe Fontana di Trevi, a happy and successful marriage of classicism and baroque, was planned as an exhibition of the Acqua Vergine by Nicola Salvi under the patronage of Clement XII. Pope Urban VIII Barberini had already instructed Gian Lorenzo Bernini to «transform» the piazza and the fountain. but the project was never carried out. Set along one side of Palazzo Poli, the Fountain, which was made by Nicola Salvi between 1732 and 1763, represents an original and imaginative fusion, in the Berninian Style, of architecture, sculpture and the natural elements which contribute to the Fountain’s unique character. The theme of the sculpture is the sea. The design is dominated by a charior in the form of a shell in which the great statue of Neptune by Pietro Bracci stands, flanked in the side niches by Health and Plenty, the works of Filippo Della Valle. The charior is pulled by marine horses. who are in turn preceded by tritons. The marine divinities are placed on rocks of irregular blocks of travertine. The fountain sprawls below the facade of the palazzo behind it, which is in rigidly classicising Style, based on the triumphal arch model, with further sculptures in niches as well as in the attic storey and an elegant balustrade. The surrounding houses crowd round the splendid monument, giving the impression of an amphitheatre, while the noise of the fountain’s water can be heard From the maze of surrounding streets up to the moment when the snow-white scene appears miraculously before the astonished eyes of the visitor.

  • Piazza della Repubblica  – Piazza Esedra
    – Fontana delle Naiadi

 Piazza republica roma

– Basilica Santa Maria degli angeli e dei Martiri (part of the Terme di Diocleziano emperor) by Michelangelo Buonarroti

Basilica – Santa Maria degli angeli e dei Martiri

С Мария на ангелите

Astronomy in the Church The Clementine in Santa Maria degli Angeli, Rome 

The Bianchini merian line – Astronomy in Rome

Рим С Мария на Ангелите


С Мария на Ангелите Рим Еседра

Interior Santa Maria degli angeli Rome


  • Colosseo – Anfiteatro Flavio – Amphitheatrum Flavium

 колизей рим екскурзияThe inhabitants of Rome must have appreciated the building of the big amphitheatre in the centre of the valley, which had previously been the site of the artificial lake made for Nero. The Judaic war, which had ended in 70 AD with the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem, provided the boory and the manpower needed for the consrruction of the building. It was Vespasian’s son, Titus, who inaugurated the amphitheatre in 80 AD, with a memorable gala and games lasring 100 days. The Flavian Amphitheatre was superior in dimensions and monumentaliry to all those previously built. It was 52 m high, like the northern side near the Via dei Fori lmperiali, which is still intaCt. The whole of the external wall was faced with marble slabs and decorated with statues in the arcades, and bronze shields hung From the attic storey windows. The organisation of the internal seating was Strictly governed by the laws eStablished by Augustus, through which spectators were seated according to their social class. The Colosseum was furnished with a sophisricated system of drains which fed the baths and numerous fountains required to keep the vast audience cool. In the amphitheatre there were various kinds of entertainment: fights between pairs of gladiators, hunts involving wild and exotic animals, naval battles and capital punishment executions by exposure to wild beasts, which were also suffered by Christians during periods of persecution.

  • Circus maximus – Circo Massimo – it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire

    Circus Maximus Rome tours

  • PANTHEON PantheonThe Pantheon is stituated in the Roman Regio (quarter) 1X, corresponding to Campus Martins. According to legend, Campus Martins used to belong to the Tarquins and was a marshy area. When the last Etruscan king was expelled from Rome in 509 BC, the year the Republic was founded, the area became public. Augustus began filling the central area of Campus Martins with monuments and rebuilding the buildings in the Circus Flaminius area. The temple — dedicated to all the gods — was intended to be a symbol of the Emperor Augustus and therefore of his family, the gens Iulia. The Pantheon is stituated in the Roman Regio (quarter) 1X, corresponding to Campus Martins. According to legend, Campus Martins used to belong to the Tarquins and was a marshy area. When the last Etruscan king was expelled from Rome in 509 BC, the year the Republic was founded, the area became public. Augustus began filling the central area of Campus Martins with monuments and rebuilding the buildings in the Circus Flaminius area. The temple — dedicated to all the gods — was intended to be a symbol of the Emperor Augustus and therefore of his family, the gens Iulia. The Pantheon owes its current appearance to the restrueturing conducted by Hadrian between 118 and 125 AD. This maintained the blueprint of the previous construCtion. except where the level of the base was raised and the width of the pronaos reduced to eight columns. The inscription on the architrave referring to the building of the temple by Agrippa was retained by Hadrian, who never had his name inscribed on any of the monuments he built, with the exception of Traian’s temple. A second inscription in smaller letters records the restoration by Septimius Severus and Caracalla in 202 AD. In 609 AD the Byzantine Emperor Foca gave the Pantheon to Pope Boniface 1V, and the temple was changed into the Chiesa di Santa Maria ad Martyres. A flight of steps led up to a large portico with eight monolithic granite columns with white marble capitals and bases. Two more rows of four columns formed the three aisles. The monumental bronze door is probably original. although it has been restored many times. The dome is the largeSt one built prior to the 20th century; it measures 43.30 metres in diameter and was built using a huge wooden framework. The use of layers of concrete alternated with tufa and pumice served to lessen the weight ofthe huge structure. The height of the temple from the floor to the top of the dome is equal to the diameter of the latter, meaning that a sphere could fit into the interior, so that there is a perfect balance in the building’s proportions. On the inside the dome is adorned with five rows of cofl‘ering which were probably originally decorated with gilded bronze elements.

 

  • Avenitino hill – Colle Aventino

    Aventino fountain - Rome tours

    – Basilica di Santa Sabina and Porta lignea di Santa Sabina

    Basilica Santa Sabina Rome car excursion The Roman aristocratic families had built their sumptuous dwellings here, near the two thermal centres. The crypt of Santa Sabina bears the traces of  their hermitages or little fraternal  community, which was given hospitality in the house of a Roman matron, Sabina, who had been converted to Christianity by her slave Serafia and who was subsequently decapitated during the Empire ofVespasiano. Later, in the Early Middle Ages, the Aventine was selecred by monks and the religious as the seat of their hermitages or little Fraternal communities. In this context, from the fifth century onwards, one of the most imposing Palm-Christian basilicas of the city sprang up. The fourth century floor of the Former domus is all that remains ofit, and it can be viewed through a grating near the entrance to the basilica, but many pieces ofwalling lie beneath the right aisle. The basilica was built in the fifth century and dedicated to San Domenico in 1222. Some restoration work was carried out in the 15th century, but it was the alterations by Domenico Fontana in 1587, at the time of Sixtus V, and Francesco Borromini in 1643, which would change the interior of the basilical complex fundamentally. Domenico Fontana demolished the trim/a cantorum, the conostrm’: and the riborium, introducing the main altar and large baldacchino.

    – The orange garden – Parco degli aranci and the romantic view of Rome in Vatican direction

    Orange garden - Rome excursions

    – Rome rose garden – Giardino delle rose – Over 1100 varieties of roses are grown there, many of them gifts from countries around the world.
    Giardino delle Rose ROMA Guide

  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta – SMOM – Sovrano militare ordine di Malta

Papa Francesco Order of Malta square – Sovrano militare ordine di Malta Roma – Piazza Cavalieri di Malta – Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or Order of Malta is the modern Rome-based continuation of the medieval Knights Hospitaller.   The entity retains sovereignty under international law, including permanent observer status at the United Nations,  issuing its own passports, currency and postal stamps with the Maltese cross insignia. In February 2013, the order celebrated its 900th anniversary as a sovereignty entity by recognition on 15 February 1113 of the Papal bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis, issued by Pope Paschal II. The celebration included a general audience given by Pope Benedict XVI and a Holy Mass celebrated by Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone at Saint Peter’s Basilica.

Papa Francesco and Knights of Malta

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 Rare event …. The SMOM embassy with open doors

Ordine di Malta - Rome guide

Order of Malta – ACISMOM – Rome

Ordine di Malta celebrazioni a Roma

Order of Malta celebration – Vatican City

Order of Malta - Rome private tour

Order of Malta – Rome

Pyramid of Cestius – Piramide di Caio Cestio – and Non-Catholic Cemetery in Rome
piramide cestia Ancient pyramid in Rome built about 18 BC–12 BC as a tomb for Gaius Cestius, a magistrate and member of one of the four great religious corporations in Rome, the Septemviri Epulonum. Rome’s Non-Catholic Cemetery contains possibly the highest density of famous and important graves anywhere in the world. It is the final resting-place of the poets Shelley and Keats, of many painters, sculptors and authors, a number of scholars, several diplomats, Goethe’s only son, and Antonio Gramsci, a founding father of European Communism, to name only a few

  • Old italian pasticceria, ice cream shop and bar

    Pasticceria italiana - Rome private tours

    Gelateria Rome private tour

  • Piazza Venezia – Venezia square in ROME

    Piazza Venezia - Rome car excursionIt takes its name from the Palazzo Venezia, built by the Venetian Cardinal, Pietro Barbo – later Pope Paul II , alongside the church of Saint Mark, the patron saint of Venice. The Palazzo Venezia served as the embassy of the Republic of Venice in Rome.


  • Colonna Traiana – Trajan’s Column – Roman triumphal column that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan’s victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate.
    Colonna Traiana - Rome individual exursions Colonna Traiana - Rome guide excursionThe column decorated with historical scenes is a form of monument particular to Rome, and was introduced for the first rime in Trajan’s forum by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. who was in charge of the whole pro jcct. The reliefs carved on the column arc presented in sequence, winding round the shaft up to the top, as a narrative tale, in celebration of the feats and triumphs of the Emperor. The column was dedicated to Trajan in 113 AD by the Senate and the people of Rome, in the forum bearing the same name. The height of the monument (about 40 m) matches the one on the hill. which was dismantled when the complex of the Markets and the Forum was built, as the inscription on the base of the column states. The top of the monument was crowned with a bronze statue of Trajan which has not survived; it was replaced by one of Saint Peter in 1588. The base is in the form  of an altar similar to the funerarv altars of the Republican Age, and it served as a tomb for the Emperor; Trajan’s ashes were kept in a gold urn placed in the burial chamber inside the base of the column. Here there is a hail leading to a spiral staircase made of marble, with 1 85 steps leading from the base to the top of the monument. Termed a cochlite column, like that of Marcus Aurelius, due to the presence of a spiral within the shaft, it was conceived by Trajan’s architect. Apollodorus of Damascus. On the outside, the long spiral frieze recounts the two Dacian campaigns with a figure of Victory writing on a shield separating them, but no attempt to create a link between them. The crossing of the Danube by the Roman army on a bridge of boats marks the beginning of the wars, and there follow battles, sieges, the setting up of encampments, the placing of troops and the submission of the indigenous chiefs to the Emperor.

  • Mercati di Traiano – Mercatus Traiani – Trajan’s Market was probably built in 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus.

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    The huge architecrural complex of the forum and Trajan’s Markets was until late antiquity considered the most famous of Rome’s wonders. The impressive projecr was attributed to Apollodorus of Damascus, a Syrian architecr. who worked mainly under the Emperor Trajan, in the F: rst half of the second century AD. This architect, one of the few artisrs of whom records survive, Fused and reworked the Fundamental principles of Hellenistic and Roman architecture. The Markets, which were designed at the same time as Trajan’s forum, are set on the slopes of the Quirinale. with a series of superimposed terraces. The removal of part of the hill, to a height equivalent to that of Trajan’s column, had made space for the creation of a piazza (square) in the grand style. The complex, which was designed for commercial and storage use, is articulated on dilTerent levels, and its facade consisrs of a large exea’ra (curving wall), which includes the Forum’s eastern side, with eleven tabernae (booths) facing it.

 

  • Campidoglio hill – Piazza del Campidoglio and Michelangelo square- It was the citadel (equivalent of the ancient Greek acropolis) of the earliest Romans.
    campidoglio rome private tours
    The Piazza del Campidoglio, with the long flight of steps leading up to it, is both the political and physical heart of the city. Is was designed in its monumental setting by Michelangelo in 1536, under the patronage of Paul III Farnese. It arguably represents the most perfect translation of the concept of the piazza as an autonomous urban space in 16th century culture. Ina masterly reinterpretation of the classic concept of the piazza, Michelangelo reversed the outlook, which had until then been oriented towards the Roman Forum, placing the statue of Marcus Aurelius in the middle to face Saint Peter’s Basilica. As background, he devised the complete rebuilding of the medieval Palazzo Senatorio, which rose above the ruins of the former Tabularium, and the side wings, made up of the Palazzo dei Conservatori and the Palazzo Nuovo. The latter were completed according to she artist’s plans respectively in 1568 and 1655. Uprooted and set obliquely, they endue,/ the piazza with a greater sense of space, and enhance the per4pective and theatricality. The geometric star design oldie paving, which was implemented in 1940 by Antonio Munoz based on the plans left by Buonarroti, also emphasises the centrifugal, dynamic dimension of the whole. The robust and imposing plasticity of the architecture adds to the sober stateliness of this area. The façade of Palazzo Senatorio eras adapted from the Michelangelesque plan by Giacomo Della Porta and Girolamo Rainaldi, with its entrance facing the piazza, characteristic double flights of steps, stucco facing and row of gigantic Corinthian pilaster strips. The balustrade looking out over the city, with its monumental Dioscuri, was also conceived to complement the piazza, and was modified by Della Porta in 1585.

 

  • Foro Romano – Roman forum panoramic view

 

  • Theatre of Marcellus – Teatro marcello – Theatrum Marcelli – The theatre was 111 m in diameter and was the largest and most important theatre in Ancient Rome; it could originally hold between 11,000 and 20,000 spectators.Teatro Marccello
    Teatro Marccello - old roman architecture excursion
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  • Piazza della Bocca della Verità – The square lies in the ancient area of the Forum Boarium, just in front of the Tiber Island; it takes its name from the Bocca della Verità. The fountain in front of the two temples, called Fountain of the Tritons, released by Carlo Bizzaccheri. Besides the church, dating back to the late Middle Ages, the square houses the Arcus Argentariorum, the Arch of Janus, the Temple of Hercules Victor and the Temple of Portunus, a deity related to the ancient river harbour.

  • Temple of Portunus – Tempio di Portuno
    tempio di portuno Rome car excursion

Its Ionic order has been much admired, drawn and engraved and copied since the 16th century (see illustration, right).  The temple owes its state of preservation from its being converted to use as a church in 872 and rededicated to Santa Maria Egyziaca (Saint Mary of Egypt).

  •  Tempio di Ercole Vincitore – The Temple of Hercules Victor – Hercules the Winner or Hercules Olivariustempio di Ercole Vincitore Rome car excursions

Dating from the later 2nd century BC By 1132 the temple had been converted to a church, known as Santo Stefano alle Carozze (St. Stephen ‘of the carriages).

   

  •  Fontana dei Tritoni
    Rome fountain car excursions
    This fountain should be distinguished from the similarly named nearby Triton Fountain (Fontana del Tritone) by Bernini. The fountain was completed in 1715 by architect Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri, during the works for the accommodation of the square in front of the basilica.

 

  • Rome panoramic view – Janiculum Hill – Colle del Gianicolo

    Piazza Garibaldi Gianicolo - Rome tour
    Piazza Garibaldi – Roma


    Faro Gianicolo Rome car excursion
    Il Faro – Giannicolo hill – Rome


 

  • Tempietto del Bramante – Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio
    Tempietto del Bramante - Rome tours and guide Tempietto del Bramante Roma - Car tours in romeBuilt on the top of the Gianicolo, the tempietto (little temple) was commissioned by the King of Spain to consecrate the place in which, according to medieval tradition, Saint Peter, the martyr, founder of the Christian Church and flat pope, had been crucified. The young architeCt Bramante conceived it as a genuine martyrium in antique style. with a central plan and a circle of perimeter columns. The building must have been placed in a large square, which, however. was never built. In spite of the reduced size, the space has been planned in grandiose, monumental Style. It is evidently based on the study of the rules of harmony of the Roman Vitruvius, who advised the use of the Doric order of columns for buildings dedicated to masculine divinitics or mythological figures famous for their sum and courage. The architeCt Bramante did in Fact use the Doric order for the tempietto. giving it an air of rigour and economy, which is also due to limited use of excessive decoration and the sober harmony of the volumes.

     


  • Fontana Paolina o Fontana dell’Acqua Paola – Il fontanone The big fountain
    fontana paola roma - rome individual tour
    It was built in 1612 to mark the end of the Acqua Paola aqueduct, restored by Pope Paul V, and took its name from him. It was the first major fountain on the left bank of the River Tiber.

 

  • Vaticano – The Vatican
    – San Peter square and basilica San Pietro The open space which lies before the basilica was redesigned by Gian Lorenzo Bernini from 1656 to 1667, under the direction of Pope Alexander VII.

San Pietro VaticanoThe colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, frame the trapezoidal entrance to the basilica and the massive elliptical area which precedes it.

At the center of the ovato tondo stands an Egyptian obelisk of red granite, 25.5 metres tall, supported on bronze lions and surmounted by the Chigi arms in bronze, in all 41 metres to the cross on its top. The obelisk was originally erected at Heliopolis, Egypt, by an unknown pharaoh. During the Middle Ages, the gilt ball on top of the obelisk was believed to contain the ashes of Julius Caesar.

Vatican tour – Original video music

Electronic music by Adel Karanov – Vaticano

Within Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peter’s Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the world’s most famous paintings and sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.

  • Pieta – Michelangelo – Vaticano – San Pietro
Pieta - Michelangelo - Vatican tour
Pieta – Michelangelo – Vatican tour

In 1498 Cardinal Bilhe’res de Lagraulas. Abbot of San Dionigi and Ambassador of Charles VIII. gave Buonarroti the commission for the very famous sculptural group, which was to be placed in the chapel of Santa Petronilla in the ancient Basilica of Saint Peter. The same patron asked the artiSt to follow a northern iconographic model of the Virgin holding the body of her son in her arms after the deposition from the cross. As opposed to the composition of the German original, frozen in an unnatural scheme. Michelangelo. however, preferred to create an image of extreme naturalness, with soft, fluid lines. It is the only work signed by him, on the sash which crosses the Virgin’s breasr. The signature, according to Vasari, indicated the pride of the artist in his achievement. The lyrical intensity of the work. the refined smoothness of the marble and the plasticity of the forms all contribute to make it a work of perfect equilibrium. The absorbed expression on the face of Mary reveals her withheld grief; the body of Jesus. surrendered in exhaustion to the immense pain it has borne, brings the holy scene into the dimension of humanity; the fineness of the garments, the monumental composition and the perfecrion of the Features and anatomy endow the scene with a divine aura and timelessness. Perhaps it was this «absolute» beauty which led to the famous episode so frequently mentioned since, when, on Whit Sunday, May 21 1972. a madman attacked the group with a hammer, entailing a lengthy period of restoration to repair the damage and fill the holes.

Palazzo Colonna and gardens – Rome

Exclusive visit – saturday morning

Palazzo Colonna RomaPalazzo Colonna is one of the oldest and largest private palaces of Rome. Its construction began in the fourteenth century by the Colonna family, who still resides there since eight centuries. The Colonna family dates back to the twelfth century and comes from the town of Colonna, near Rome, from which it takes its name. The construction of the various wings of Palazzo Colonna lasted for five centuries. This has led to the overlapping of different architectural styles, interiors and exteriors, which characterize and reflect the different periods. From 1300 to 1500 it acted as a family fortress. Oddone Colonna, elected Pope on November 11, 1417 under the name of Martin V, appointed the Palace as the Pontifical Seat and lived there from 1420 to 1431, the year of his death. In those ten years, within the austere rooms of Palazzo Colonna, Pope Martin V designed and implemented a great plan for a cultural, urban and administrative rebirth of the city of Rome, which lay in devastating conditions after the period of papal exile to Avignon and the Western Schism. In 1527, during the sack of Rome by the troops of Emperor Charles V, Palazzo Colonna was one of the few buildings that was not destroyed due to the good relationship of the family with the Empire. Instead, it offered a safe haven for more than three thousand Roman citizens. Throughout the 1600s, the Palace took the form of a large Baroque palace at the will of three generations; the leading family members being Philip I, Cardinal Girolamo I and Lorenzo Onofrio, who relied on architects and artists of great skill and reputation. In fact, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Antonio del Grande, Carlo Fontana, Paolo Schor, and many others, all lent their expertise. Also during this time was the construction of the beautiful and majestic Galleria Colonna, which has 76 meters of length facing onto via IV Novembre. This authentic jewel of the Roman Baroque is now open to the public, with apartments of major artistic value that are most representative of the Palace.  Atruejewel of Roman the Baroque, the Galleria Colonna was commissioned in the mid 1600s by Cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna. It was inaugurated by Lorenzo Onofrio’s son, Philip II, in 1700. The original project is by the architect Antonio del Grande; it was then integrated by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Paolo Schor and Carlo Fontana in the last decade of the 1600s. From the very beginning, the Gallery was conceived as a large boardroom, which was to celebrate the victory of the Christian fleet over the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. The commander of the Papal fleet, Marcantonio II Colonna, is depicted numerous times throughout the vault of the Great Hall of the Gallery and in the Room of the Battle Column. The fresco on the vault above the Room of the Battle Column is by Giuseppe Chiari and depicts the presentatiou of Marcantonio to the Virgin Mary in heaven. The room takes its name from the column of red marble on a pedestal in the center of the room, which recalls the family coat of arms. Its inlays have reminiscent scenes of ancient Roman life.

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  •  Микеланджело ВатиканаКапела Систина РусримThe Belvedere Garden The idea of creating the Vatican Museums came about at the beginning of the Ili”‘ century when Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere became Pope, taking the name Julius II (1503-1513), and had important classical stat-ues such as the .Ipollo and the Laocoon transferred to the Vatican   anti   placed   in  the   Belvedere   Palace   garden,   which   had   been

Ватикана папски апартаменти transformed into a courtyard. The courtyard was designed by Donato Bramante, Nvho had drawn in-spiration from literary descriptions and the remains of villas and ancient palaces to recreate a natwal  environment wills the ancient

Vaticano Rusrimmarble stat-ues placed amongst orange, lemon, myrtle and has trees accompanied by a continuous flow of water from Ilse fountains. The classical statues were harmoniously positioned along the walls of Use courtyard in niches and in the centre as part of the fountain. This environment edified mid delighted the men of letters and assists who cause to Rome as guests of the Pope to study classical antiquities. The

raffaelloBelvedere Palace was built in the 15’h century for Innocent VIII (Cybo. 1-184-1492) as a papal summer residence. The view over the Ro-man countryside must have been spectacular. though it has now been replaced Its the sight of the city’s Prati and Trionfale areas. For the most part the original architecture has been retained. although Ilse Palace was altered in the 18th century. IVe can still reconstruct its original ap-pearance thanks to a series of drawings, engravings, maps and eleva-tions from the le and 17″‘ centuries. The main facade was dominated by a loggia with two avant-corps at the far ends and a craws of merlons running all the way around building. The Palace was actually part of a much huger complex. as this engrav-ing by Mario Cartaro clearly shaves. It can be seen on Ilse right, to Ilse north, with Ilse Garden holding Julius II’s statuses and its view over the roman cOuntr•side. On the opposite side to use south we cars sec the complex of the Papal Palace, first built by order of Pope Nicholas III  (Orsini. 1277-1280) who look into consideration the potential of the Vatican in becoming the fixed papal residence, fully aware of the importance of living in proximity to Peter’s tomb. The former papal residence was the Lateran and it was only after the Avignon Exile (1300-1377) that the Pope lived permanently at the Vatican. This illustration also Shows the connecting courtyard designed by Donato Bramante. Bramante and Ain. 11 were able to come to it unique understanding as their inten-tions converged to satisfy one in his search for a universal architectural language and the other in his plan to recover the splendour of ancient Rome. brought to life again in a Christian setting. lit this case Bramante’s study and reintroduction of classical architecture in the expression of a universal language Nvas operative in Julius Is plans to reorganise the Papal Palace, Among the various renovation projects. the architect designed the Belvedere Courtyard to link the summer Palace , ith the …

  •  The tournament and the joust In the joust two knights at a time with their lances at resc galloped towards each other trying to unseat their opponent. The tournament on the other hand. was a simulated battle between two groups of knights. each fighting to overpower the other and become manners of the battlefield. These tests originated in France and appeared in Italy from the l2‘” century onwards.The tournaments were held to celebrate victories, peace, alliances. marriages, religious festivals and important political events. Originally they hardly differed from real battles to the point where. at the end of the day. it was not unusual for many participants to suffer injuries or even death. Over time. and after numerous outcries. the games became less and less violent and took on the form of grand festivals in which participants used blunted weapons without their sharp points or covered them with a shield. It was not until the l7″‘ century, however. that the displays definitively shed their primitive nature involving the representation of a battle and became contests of grace and agility. often choreographed with music. Besides the sculptm‘es in the niches other statues were reused as ornaments for the fountains. Luder the papacy of Leo X (Medici, 1515-1521). Julius ll’s successor. a new discovery was added to the pontifical collection: the colossal statues of the Nile and the Tiber. These were placed in the centre of the courtyard among the orange trees on high plinths with the Medici coat of arms. the Nile with its back to the Laocoon and the Tiber opposite. Durhig Statua del nilo e Tevere - Vatican individual tourJulius II’s reign two other statues were added and used as fountains. ‘I”he-iriadnc was positioned in the corner of the courtyard above a sarcophagus held up by dolphins which served as a basin, and an ancient statue of a river thought to he the ‘Ii’gris or the Arno was placed in the niche at the other end of the same wall, it too being reduced to a fountain on a sarcophagus supported by turtles. The last additions were the world famous Torso. particularly admired by Michelangelo who declared himself to be a ‘disciple of the Belvedere Torso’, placed near the fragment of Hercules and Antaeus anti a statue identified as Henncs standing in the niche next to the Palace’s entrance. The walls of the. courtyard also held marble masks which were thought to have come from the Pantheon. This collection of sculptures transformed the Vatican into an ideal Parnassus – the hill of the Muses which inspired the creative process in all its forms – the very one which Raphael painted at aromid the same time on one of the walls of Julius 11’s apartment on the third floor of the Papal Palace with the intention of recapturing and studying the work of classical civilisations, a practice which was considered to be very important during the Renaissance. The testimony of an anonymous ambassador from the Veneto region. who saw the Belvedere Garden when he made his visit of allegiance to the new Pope Adrian VI (Florensz, 1522—1525). is very effective in providing a description of the area. He recounts a beautiful garden with lush grass. laurds. a magnificent orange tree and more particularly the ancient statues of the Tiber and the Nile which gushed with water. the Apollo. the Lam-muand finally the exquisite l‘tmus.
  • What is a museum? According to the International Council of Museums (ICoM)”a museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its develop-ment, open to the public. which acquires, conserves, researches, communi-cates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment.” Why a museum? Every time we enter a museum and walk through the various rooms we make an ideal journey, a sort of itinerary of the soul which allows us to re-turn to
    The vatican museum - tour with guide
    Vatican museums – Private tours Rome and Vatican

    the origins of Man and consequently to piece together the collec-tive identity of the whole of humanity on its voyage through history. During this eternally unique and fascinating journey, however, we must keep in mind that we are faced with a fragmented situation. incomplete in the partial and fragmented display of each work of art and of each object which can never-theless restore traces of truth to us, like the fragments of a mirror. The origin of the word Where does the word “museum” come from? The term has ancient Greek origins stemming from the noun museion or rather “temple, shrine, or seat of the Muses” — the goddesses who, according to ancient mythology, in-spired creative thought in all its shapes and forrns.They were the supreme inspirers of Man’s intellectual activities such as poetry, oratory, music, histo-ry, mathematics and astronomy. Originally the seat of the Muses was prob-ably meant to be on a hill or in a wood and not in a building. The noun museion. referring to a building, was used to indicate the Great Museum ofAlexandria in Egypt, a religious institution in which study and re-search were placed under the protection of the Muses.This museum was built in the century sc and included lodgings for the academic commu-nity of men of letters and scientists, rooms and porticoes for reading, study-ing and conversing, various works of art and more especially the great cul-tural institution of the famous library. Both these institutions were founded on the initiative of the ruling Ptolemy dynasty and represented a cultural reference point for the whole of the Mediterranean at the time, contain-ing specially dedicated areas and a building for teaching and research under the auspices of the Muses. Plato and Aristotle also organised their schools, the Academy and the Lyceum respectively, as places conceived for the cult of the Muses. The birth of the museum as an institution The museum as an institution has deeply-rooted and distant origins and was founded thanks to our inclination for gathering together and collecting all kinds of objects at risk of being damaged over time. The first collections of art had religious connotations both in ancient Egypt and in Greece, for example the objects of worship in the temples and grave goods. In Roman times the practice of secular collecting arose after great military conquests and the arrival of the spoils of war in Rome. Noble hous-es and villas, temples and porticoes were filled with works of art, especial-ly of Greek origin. This is supported by historical sources and by archaeo-logical findings. Pliny, for example. in his Naturalis Historia lists a series of Greek statues and paintings in the so-called Portico of Octavio, and findings at Pompeii and Herculaneum like the series of bronze portrait sculptures of philosophers in the library of the Pisoni family villa. In the Middle Ages the Church, and therefore all places of worship, became the favoured destination for commissions and collections of works of art as educational and religious [ messages could be communicated through them. for example the frescoes or the mosaics depicting the episodes of the Old and New Testaments or the lives of saints along the churches’ naves, which were aimed at bringing wor-shippers and pilgrims closer to the great themes of faith (Bibb° pauperum, the [ Bible of the Poor) using a simple and immediate means of communication. In the 15. century and then during the Renaissance with the renewed in-terest in the study of classical antiquity, the spread of humanistic culture j and the reconsideration of works of art from an independent aesthetical Ipoint of view, there was not a court in Italy which did not also become a home for ancient works of art and a source of commissions for contempo-rary craftsmen. Milan. Mantua, Ferrara. Urbino and Florence came to house i splendid collections and the very same artists and humanists became coi-1 lectors. With Humanism collecting became a method of investigation and the collector became a philosopher, a theologian who would search for the order of the world in his collections. Collections began to blossom with naturalta,artificialia and mirabilia which included antiquities (Egyptian. Greek. Roman and Christian), gems, coins. marble objects, scientific and musical in-, struments, portraits of illustrious men, fossils, minerals, coral, various other objects (talismans. lamps, ethnographic findings from far away continents, stones), rare animals (crocodiles. shells) and plants (exotic fruits). Essential-ly these collections did not just include man-made objects (artificialia), they also included natural discoveries (naturalia) and items which excited admi-ration (mirabilia). For the humanists from Petrarch and Poggio Bracdohni to Retro Bembo at the beginning of the 16°’ century. a paradigm of all this was

  • The Vatican Museums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    Papa - Giulio II - Vaticano
    Papa Giulio II – Musei Vaticani

    During the Counter-Reformation in the middle of the 16‘” century the tradition of collecting was opposed and expurgaled with harsh words; in reference to the ancient sculptures collected in the Vatican. St. Pius V (Ghislieri, 1566-1572) declared: ‘sunt idola profana’ (‘these are profane idols“). F urlherrnore, the great new construction site of St. Peter‘s required unprecedented effort and attention so the Popes of the l7m century had to concentrate on the colossal project. indirectly imposing athe “study”, a place where books joined all the various antiquities constitut-ing a local variation on the European model of the so-called “Wunderkam-mer” or “cabinets of curiosities”, embryos of the Museum as we recognise it today, a laboratory of history and knowledge of the world. The penetration of Humanism in Rome was at the root of the Papal col-lections and their usage by scholars and artists, as well as the collections on display in the large houses and courtyards of the great families. These collections revealed refined cultural awareness and they became tools for orchestrating agendas and political plans. Julius II’s plans for the statue gar-den, for example, can be interpreted in this light. He gathered together sculptures which called to mind the protagonists of the Trojan War such as the Laocoon, the Apollo and the Venus Felix reminiscent of Aphrodite, and the group of Hercules and Telephus reminiscent of Aeneas with his son Ascanius. The Pope wanted to create a real Virgilian theme which would link the stat-ues together to communicate a precisely-conceived political agenda. Just as Virgil celebrated the origins of Rome through the Trojan War and Aeneus’ adventures in the Aeneid in accordance with Augustus’ political agenda to exalt the city’s centrality and the imperial family, Julius II used his “Virgilian” statues and played on his own name lulius  put himself in the direct line of the Gens liulia, Caesar and Augustus’ family, with the aim of heralding a new golden age for recently-established Christian Rome. There was also a public dimension to collecting in Rome which became more marked after Sixtus IV’s (della Rover, 1471-1481) “dbnation” CO the Roman people of large bronzes with great symbolic value.They were trans-ported from the Lateran CO Capitoline Hill and became the nucleus of the future Capitoline Museums. However, it was during the 18 century. the Age of Enlightenment, that the modern concept of the Museum took shape, that is to say a public institu-tion open to everyone aiming to safeguard cultural heritage and promote its understanding.This institution was therefore a creature of the Enlight-enment in Europe; it was during this era that an architectural space was designed for the first time to give a universally recognisable form to the museums. Previously, works of are had been simple decorative elements in the large houses and villas which received them. Now a new awareness arose which underlined the importance of making the cultural heritage formerly restricted to the enjoyment of a limited and elite circle acces-sible to everyone. It also exposed the necessity of designing a building, a home for the works to be collected; a container conceived especially for its contents.This century, therefore, witnessed the birth of the great mu-seums and after various expansion works and changes to the organisation of the collections. Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-1740) decreed the opening of the Capitoline Museums.

 

  • Bramante’s Staircase (Scala del Bramante) A little further on, alter passing
    scala del Bramante - Vatican museum individual excursion
    Scala del Bramante Vatican private tour

    Iltrough a small vestibule, we come to Rramante’s Staircase, a spiral flight of stairs enhanced by a gran-ite colonnade made for Julius II (della Rovere, 1503-1513). The graded ramp was built as one of the entrances to the Palace and its structure with wide and low steps made it possible to go up and down easily even on horseback. It is characterised by an elegant colonnade which displays the three architectural orders, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, changing ac-cording to the level you are on as you move upwards from the bottom.

 

  • Octagonal Courtyard (Cortile Ottagonale) Moving back, we come to the Octagonal Courtyard, the heart and ini-tial location of the Vatic. Niuseunts.
    Octagonal Courtyard - vatican individual tour
    Octagonal CourtyardVatican museum tour

    Originally there was a square, or-ange tree garden decorated with statues Julius If had built Icy Bramante. The Apollo, the Laocoon and the Izernis Felix were installed in the three cappelleile (small shrines) along the Courtyard’s main wall, the one the Pope’s guests would see in front of them as they arrited in the garden front Rratnante’s Staircase. In the le century Clement XIV ordered the open area to be closed off by an octagonal portico designed by Simonetti, giving the Courtyard its current appearance. The shorter sides are called Cabinets (Gabinetti), and here we eats admire the most important statues adorning Julius II’s ancient courtyard.

 

  • The statuary The statues and their origins When we admire masterpieces of classical statuary we have to remember that we are standing before Roman copies of Greek statues. Statues, in Greece. were linked to politics and religion so we must try to imagine there outdoors. in temples, shrines. the Agora. libraries, theatres. gymnasia and as ornaments on tombs. The military campaigns conducted by the Romans in the Mediterranean af-forded various opportunities of coming into direct contact with the thriv-ing centres of Greek civilisation and the inevitable result was that countless Greek works of art — the spoils of war — began to flow into Rome.The first objects came from Syracuse, which was seized and sacked in 212 BC by Gen-eral Marcus Marcellus.According to the historian Livy the conquest of Syra-cuse was ‘the very beginning of enthusiasm for Greek works of are (XXV), and this was corroborated in Marcellus’ biography, written by the Greek Plutarch, in which we can read that the General ‘to illustrate his triumph. and adorn the city, carried away with him a great number of the most beautiful ornaments of Syracuse. For, before that. Rome neither had, nor had seen. any of those fine and exquisite rarities: nor was any pleasure taken in graceful and elegant pieces of workmanship: (Life of Marcellus, 21). Seeing as the origi-nals did not satisfy demand, Roman copies began to be made of the Greek originals and entire schools transferred their activities to Rome to work for the buyers.This became one of the main factors in facilitating the mania for private collecting reflecting Catholic tastes which, far from appreciating the shapes and forms of Greek art, concentrated on making the works fit in with their architectural setting. The materials The materials chosen so make the statues were extremely diverse: wood. terracotta, bronze, limestone, and marble with a preference for the white varieties, porphyry and granite. The favoured materials were usually the durable ones. partly due to the need to withstand outdoor conditions and atmospheric agents. For the same reasons. as well as for aesthetics. the statues’ surfaces were painted. also partly to mitigate the violent effects of the light. There was a progressive transition from full to partial polychromy, fache-tated by the artists’ discovery of the marble’s beauty. However, the use of colour on the statues never completely disappeared. just as the artists also continued to spread a protective layer of wax on them. Distinctive colours were also used on the bronzes as well as embellish-ments in enamel. ivory and mother of pearl for the natural rendering of the eyes and mouth. Unfortunately most of the Greek statues in bronze have been lost as they were melted down in later eras. so the existence of origi-nals is extremely rare and the result of fortuitous circumstances. Luckily the Roman copies in marble from the original Greek bronzes have been mostly well preserved and handed down to us intact.Thanks to these statues, and by studying and comparing various copies of the same model in reliefs, on coins and in glyptics. we can laboriously trace back to the archetypal form of the Greek original. How can a Roman marble copy be told apart from a Greek bronze original? The presence of supports reveals the works true origins as metal has more elasticity than stone and does not break as easily.The protruding parts of a the “study”, a place where books joined all the various antiquities constitut-ing a local variation on the European model of the so-called “Wunderkam-mer” or “cabinets of curiosities”, embryos of the Museum as we recognise it today, a laboratory of history and knowledge of the world. The penetration of Humanism in Rome was at the root of the Papal collections and their usage by scholars and artists, as well as the collections on display in the large houses and courtyards of the great families. These collections revealed refined cultural awareness and they became tools for orchestrating agendas and political plans. Julius ll’s plans for the statue gar-den, for example, can be interpreted in this light. He gathered together sculptures which called to mind the protagonists of the Trojan War such as the Laocoon, the Apollo and the Venus Felix reminiscent of Aphrodite, and the group of Hercules and Telephus reminiscent of Aeneas with his son Ascanius. The Pope wanted to create a real Virgilian theme which would link the stat-ues together to communicate a precisely-conceived political agenda. Just as Virgil celebrated the origins of Rome through the Trojan War and Aeneus’ adventures in the Aeneid in accordance with Augustus’ political agenda to exalt the city’s centrality and the imperial family, Julius II used his “Virgilian” statues and played on his own name lulius  put himself in the direct line of the Gens liulia, Caesar and Augustus’ family, with the aim of heralding a new golden age for recently-established Christian Rome. There was also a public dimension to collecting in Rome which became more marked after Sixtus IV’s (della Rovere, 1471-1481)  the Roman people of large bronzes with great symbolic value. They were transported from the Lateran  Capitoline Hill and became the nucleus of the future Capitoline Museums. However, it was during the 18 century. the Age of Enlightenment, that the modern concept of the Museum took shape, that is to say a public institu-tion open to everyone aiming to safeguard cultural heritage and promote its understanding.This institution was therefore a creature of the Enlight-enment in Europe; it was during this era that an architectural space was designed for the first time to give a universally recognisable form to the museums. Previously, works of are had been simple decorative elements in the large houses and villas which received them. Now a new awareness arose which underlined the importance of making the cultural heritage formerly restricted to the enjoyment of a limited and elite circle acces-sible to everyone. It also exposed the necessity of designing a building, a home for the works to be collected; a container conceived especially for its contents.This century, therefore, witnessed the birth of the great mu-seums and after various expansion works and changes to the organisation of the collections. Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-1740) decreed the opening of the Capitoline Museums.  I metal statue do not need co be supported while sculptures in stone need  help to stop these parts from cracking away from the, main structure. It goes without saying that artists who used bronze had almost unlimited free-dom in portraying moving or stretched out figures. The revolutionary new developments in statuary: the study of anatomy and naturalise The oriental influence on early Greek statuary is clear. The workmanship, the use of proportion and the poses of the figures are taken from Egypt (which boasted a long tradidon in large-scale sculpture) both for the stat-ues depicted standing and seated as well as those in motion. Soon, however, Greek statuary broke away from the earlier traditions and chose a new di-rection. Egyptian artists portrayed objects irrespective of the, position in space following a two-dimensional concept of reality.The unvarying aspects in their execution were therefore the front-facing position of the statues whether seated or standing, their great size (Egyptian statues were colos-sal). their lack of autonomy from the architecture (the statue could be con-fused with an architectural element in place of a pillar or column), the lack of anatomical detail and study of a portrait and the preference for durable materials. In ancient Egypt reality was represented as it was thought to be and not how a was actually perceived by the eye. Communicating an idea was considered to be the most important thing, for example the illustration of religious and cosmic principles, rites and cults and the celebration of the Pharaoh’s divinity. In the ancient world traditions generally carried great weight and resistance to innovation was strong, especially in Egypt where some conventions re-mained practically the same for millennia.The open spirit of the Greeks and thee- readiness for research and change lessened these traits and although they recognised she value of traditions. followed a code of expression and a system of binding rules, Greek artists made constant advances, moving away from abstraction and drawing nearer to naturalism; statues made their first steps into three-dimensional space. Soon after, Greek sculptors had to deal with problems linked to the representation of the body in motion, its twists and turns. and they realised that it did not necessarily have to stand on the soles of the feet, just as it did not have to face forward. Another great innovation was the study of anatomy with Man being the absolute centre of attention of Greek artists. The first step in this direc-liOn was the need to make statues life-size instead of the colossi of Egyp-‘ descent. and this led to more attention being given to anatomical detail sbrough the careful observation of still and moving bodies: athletes became ibe pre-eminent source of inspiration. Consequently, attention to anatomi-tai detail manifested itself in a love for the human body. its harmony, beauty ingourThis led the artists, right up the Hellenistic era, to avoid poi-‘saying the body’s declining forms like illness and old age whenever possible. preferred to depict subjects like gods, heroes. illustrious men, athletes the deceased, whose likenesses were destined for temples. shrines, por-ticoes and funerary monuments. Artists In the ancient world wrests in the ancient world were considered mostly to be artisans and in the Greek world the distinction was also very subtle.Technical ability was so im-portant for the Greeks that the expression “well made” was the highest combent an artisan, or a technites, could receive.Art was therefore considered so be an ability and the concept of original and independent artistic creation rernained beyond ancient ways of thinking.

 

  • Apollo Cabinet (Gabinetto dell’Apollo) Around the portico of Ihe courtyard in a clockwise direction we come the Apollo Cabinet.  Statue of Apollo “del Belvedere”
    Apollo - Vatican museum private tour
    Apollo – Vatican individual tour

    was statue was brought to the Vatican by Julius II and placed in one of the niches around the courtyard. It was admired by Winclvelmann Goethe and at an even earlier time by Michelangelo. It is a Roman copy the Hadrian era (II century Ad) or a bronze original by the sculpture – Leochares (IV century BC) which was displayed in the Agora of Athens. It depicts Apollo, who almost seems to appear before the viewer as a sudden apparition in all his divine magnificence. According to ancient mythology  Apollo, the god of music and poetry, was represented on the mytical mountain of Parnassus to preside over the Muses, who were tought by the ancients to inspire all the foremost intellectual activities of Man. In this regard, Raphael’s representation of Parnassus in Julius Its study on the second floor of the Papal Palace is eNtraordinary. Apollo was also a warrior god, capable of bringing about a quick death by striking with his bow anal arrow. In Homer’s Iliad, for example, he fights for the ‘firojans against the Greeks. The statue shows the god (tressed as an archer. In his left hand he holds the bow and in Isis right he grasps the arrow he has just drawn from the quiver. The god’s gaze is magnificent as he looks towards an undefined and faraway point in the distance. He has a chlamys, a sort of mantle, thrown over his how-arm and there is a snake on the tree trunk reminiscent of his victory at Delphi over Pythons, Gala’s monstrous serpent child. The tripod is also well-known as one the emblems of Apollo, also a god of divination, on which Pythia, a sort priestess, sat to (lel iVer her prophecies. A solemn feast was held at Delp to commemorate Python’s death and Apollo’s purification. Although this statue is a copy it displays all the originality and the achiev ments of Greek sculptors in the 4° century BC giving us the chance to a preciate Use statue’s movement in three dimensional spare.

 

  • South porticoStatue of Rivers (known as Tigris or Arno) and sarcophagus with Ainazonomachy Julius II’s “garden” held a series of statues used as parts of fountains as is the ease of this statue of Rivers. This fluvial statue is a Roman copy from the Hadrian era (2nd century AD) of a Greek prototype from the He lenistie era. Alexander’s foundation of the Empire was a highly important event Statue of Neptune - Vatican individual tourfor Greek art as it became the figurative language of almost the known world; at the same time Greek art came into contact and interacted with other cultures. We therefore refer to art from the era following the 5th and ,4th centuries BC not as Greek but Hellenistic art, as this name evoked tlse title given to the empires founded by Alexander’s successors in the East, who divided the territory into three great Kingdoms (the Kingdoms of Macedonia, Syria and Egypt). In the high Hellenistic age (from the 3rd century Bc) one of the characteristics of the statuary- was the variety of figurative themes represented. They did not just portray gods. mythical heroes, illustrious characters and athletes, as artists did in the classical era, they also depicted children, animals, personifications of the natural world, foreigners and barbarians. This statue of the fluvial deity is known to be the result  a series of restorations, with have allowed the statue to be used to form the higher section of the fountain for the Statue Garden with a basin made of a sarcophagus with an Amazonomacky. Which parts have been restored? The first is the right arm holding lire water-bearing vase, which is deco-rated with a ring bearing the Medici coat of arms. ‘this emblem initially caused the work to be identified as a personification of the river Arno. but in actual fact the Medici coat of arms refers to Pope Leo X (Medi-ci, 1513-1521), who probably commissioned the work’s first restoration. The second is the magnificent head, which is reminiscent a the Renais-sance style and seems similar in terms of expressiveness to the Moses sculpted by Michelangelo for Julius Ifs fimerary monument. The main episodes of the Greek mythological repertoire were often represented on sarcophagi with the protagonists being the gods who meddled in the affairs of men and the heroes who featured prominently in battles and various other undertakings. Naturally the episodes judged to be the most suitable for funerary allegories were chosen. In this case the well-known mythical theme of the Anzazonomachy seas well-suited to become a funerary allegory for soldiers’ sarcophagi as it recounts the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons fought both on foot and on horseback. leaving many soldiers dead on the battle-field. This battle took place during the Trojan War when the Amazons, the female warriors descended from the god of war Ares, sent a con-tingent led by their Queen Penthesilea to help King Priam of Troy. The Amazons were defeated by the Greeks and their Queen was killed by Achill.. The sarcophagus dates back to the 2″ century so.

 

  • Laocoon Cabinet (Gabinetto del Laocoonte)   Statuary   group   of  the  Laocon As tradition has it, the Trojan priest Laocoon and his two sons were killed by terrible serpents sent from the sea by Athena and Poseidon. The priest had
    Statua del Laoconte - Vatican museum tour
    Laoconte – Vatican museum tour

    objected to letting the wooden horse into the city of Tmy, advising instead to loan it. It had been left as a votive offering to Athena from the Greeks, who in the mean time pretended to go away. When laced with this wondrous sight, however, the Trojans convinced earls other to accept the horse with the Greek heroes hidden inside, sealing the city’s fate. This group of statues portrays the climactic point in which the monsters coil themselves around the ill-fated heroes’ bodies. Thereafter, Laocoon be-came an emblematic and tragic example of what would happen to those who opposed the inevitable course of events, in this case the events which foretold that Troy should be destroyed and that Aeneas would emerge from the flames to start a new family line with its descendents destined to found the city of Rome. This work of art was foetid in 1506 on Esquiline Hill in the area where the emperor Nero’s Donuts Aurea formerly stood. It was immediately acquired by Julius 11 who placed it in the famous gar-den of tile Belvedere Palace, marking the beginning of the formation of the renowned group of statues. As we have seen the !Aomori. group was full of important symbolic meanings. It is the starting point of a specifi-cally thought-out route which continues with the Apollo (who fought on the Trojans`side) moving on to the Venus Felix ….

 

  • The marble “zoo”
    After the Octagonal Cowlyard we come to the Room of the Animals (Sala degli Animali)  where we can admire a real zoological museum made of marble, that is to say a rich animalistic repertoire which also includes imaginary and exotic animals. Some are ancient while others have been significantly restored or resculpted by restorers and sculptors front the 18″‘ century. Hellenistic sculptors
The marble zoo - Vatican museum individual tour
The marble zoo – Vatican individual tour

were open to all kinds of figurative subjects and they particularly focussed on animals. partly due to more advanced scientific knowledge about their appearance and behaviour. The Hellenistic era was characterised by a great interest in the sciences and a predilection for carrying out all kinds of experiments in all fields of knowledge With people studying mathematics, geometry, geography, astronomy, medicine and botany. Moreover, art came to take on the characteristics of a mirror reflecting new developments. So why create a marble roof Its foundation was un-doubtedly favoured by 18 ,century naturalistic interests, in line with the new horizons reached by biological sciences and in light of the new encyclopaedic culture of the Enlightenment. As mentioned previously. some of the works of art here have been heavily restored, so this small museum within a museum can also be studied in terms of the trend for collecting rare and exotic objects as well as for the decorative tastes of the 10th century and the history of restoration. In a small loggia on the right, to the north. there is a magnificent bust of Pius VI contemplating his museum and little marble zoo. At the end of the 181″ century this MOM was known by,two names, the Room of the Rivers (Station (lei Vituni) and the Room of the Animals. Thanks to ancient prints we know that the renowned statues of the Tiber and the Nile stood here for some time. These personifications suited this environment extremely well as rivers, like animals, were considered to be part of the natural world. in contrast to the world of men. he-roes and gods, the main characters in the Pius-Clementine Museum’s other rooms. During the French plundering, however, the statues of the Tiber and the Nile were removed and taken to Paris for the new Louvre Museum, with only the Nile later finding its way back to Rome. Deprived of its rivers, the room took on the sole name of the Sala degli animali The tamed animals almost seem to come alive before our eyes, from birds, aquatic creatures, wolves, lynxes, lions and panthers to the group of deer being attacked by dogs and the sculptures of mythical beasts like the centaur, the griffin and the Minotaur. The collection is completed by figures whose names are indissolubly linked with animals, like Meleager, the brilliant hunter from Greek mythology mid Mithras killing the bull. There are also two ancient polychrome mosaics set in the paving with still life scenes of flora and fauna. last but not least, let its not forget that this repertoire of animals before its also holds a wide, though not complete, selection of marble as the sculptors used large quantities of coloured varieties to make the ani-mals seem more lifelike. This room allows its to understand the Greco-Roman world’s rapport with nature seen from a mythological, bucolic, hunting and zoological point of view, with the portrayal of exotic and rare animals extraneo to local wildlife, and also from a geological point of view, thanks to variety of the stones.

 

  • Bound Room (Sala Rotonda) The magnificent Round Room  with its hemispheric coffered vault and the eye in the centre telling in the light particularly brings to mind great Homan buildings such as baths. The niches around the walls hold-ing the statues, the mosaic and even an ancient utensil such as the large red
    Sala Rotonda - Vaticano tour
    Bound Room – Sala Rotonda – Vaticano tour

    porphyry cup all complete the effect. The statues on display here include an emperor and a hero, subjects which filled and decorated indoor and outdoor locations in ancient Rome.

 

  • Colossal statue of Claudius portrayed as Jupiter This statue comes from the centre of Lanuvium and is thought to have been one of the honorary statuses which adorned forums, porticoes and theatres. Here, Emperor Claudius (41-54 An) Colossal statue of Claudius - Vatican toursis portrayed as Jupiter. In every provincial town or colony, the Roman architects, first task was to erect a Capitolium similar to the one in Rome dedicated to the Capitoline triad ofJupiter, Juno and Minerva. Jupiter is the Roman god likened to the Greek figure of Zeus and appears as the god of the sky, the light of day, lightning and thunder: the eagle is the bird which carries Jupiter’s lightning bolt so it has become a symbol of strength and power. This is the reason why it bectune the insignia of every Roman legion and hence.

 

  •  Colossal bronze statue of Heracles The exceptional nature of this statue lies in its material — bronze. Bronze statues are rarely conserved as people often melted them down in times of metal shortages. This statue was struck by lightning and
    bronze statue of Heracles - Vatican museum excursion
    Colossal bronze statue of Heracles – Vatican excursion

    was buried in the place where it fell (as indicated by the engraved letters on the travertine slab closing off the hole) as it was probably considered inauspicious to melt down a statue struck by a celestial phenomenon. This work is thought to have been a part of the monumental complex of the Theatre of Pompey in Campus Martins, the first brick-built theatre in the city of Rome con-structed in the 1. century- Kc. Campus Nlartius was further north than the central Roman Forum area and its name reflected the military pur-pose for which it was mainly used. It was essentially a monumental area of the city; state ownership of the property and the level ground formed the ideal setting for erecting official, public buildings, hence the presence of numerous porticoes, groves, temples and buildings for performances such as theatres and baths. The statue of Hercules is thought to have been one of the many statues and decorative items. which would have adorned this magnificent plain between the Tiber. the Pincian Hill, the Capitoline Hill and the Quirinal Hill. Heracles is the most famous hero of all classical mythology and leg-ends linked to him mainly revolve arotmd the Cycle. of the twelve la-boum that is to say the tasks the hero tackled. distinguishing himself for his strength and coinage. This bronze Ileracles is depicted with some of the instantly recognisable attributes which allude to these tasks such as the club, the lion skits and the apples of Hesperides. Heracles’ weapon of choice, the club, was carved by the hero himsell.

 

  •  The Greek Cross Room  – A monumental entrance: The Greek Cross Room Originally the Greek Cross Room (Sala a Croce Greca), created by the architect Michelangelo Simonetti, formed the montunental entrance way to the Musetun of classical collections. It was built for Pope Pius VI. who reversed the previous V lolling route. In the past people laud entered the museum from the other side through the so-called Square Vestibule (with the inscription “MUSES M CLEMENTINVM” still visible on the architrave) because Pope Clement XIV had considered it to be more prac- ‘ deal, directly linked as it was to the Papal Palace through the east wing. When the new construction work began under his
    Sarcofago di Sant Elena - Madre di Costantino
    Sarcofago di Sant Elena – Madre di Costantino – musei Vaticani

    successor and more especially when the museum became public, this t)esv monumental en-trance was built, marked by the inscription Museum Pium. The great entrance gateway is trained by two gigantic Egyptian-style telamons from Hadrian’s villa. The Emperor went on numerous trips to the East, during which he absorbed the culture of the great civili-sations, hence, when he constructed Isis magnificent villa, he wanted the rooms to evoke the symbolic locations and Provinces of the Em-pire. in one area Hadrian constructed the Canopus, a vast space symbolising Egypt with the architecture forming a monumental map of the country with decorative items and Egyptian-style statues including the abovementioned telamons. Telamons were human-shape pillars and usually portrayed the god Osiris, the guardian of the ondervvorld, so they became also known as “Osiris pillars”. These telamons, crowned by capitals similar to the typical Egyptian capita in the form of lotus flowers, have a headdress and a short. skirt an their rigid and frontal stance is typical of Egyptian statues, blending in with the other architectural elements around them. Similar tela-mons decorate the great shrine of Isis (the Sister/wife of Osiris) and Serapis (the Roman Osiris) in Campus Martins. The “Egyptian-style-trend spread through Rome also touching upon religion. It was not difficult to find cults which had originated its Ancient Egypt in Rome and consequently it was equally comm.on to find shrines linked to their worshipping practices with architecture and adornments which invariably evoked this ancient civilisation.

 

  • Obelisks in Rome Pink granite obelisks were usually placed in pairs at the entrances to Egypt, temples and can be interpreted as symbols of the sun as they were thou& to be rays of sun turned into stone.This extremely hard stone was also asso-ciated with the god of the sun and as being a “Son of the Sun” was one of the royal prerogatives, many Pharaohs’ sarcophagi were made of granite. In 30 so
    Obelisc Laterano - Rome
    Obelisco a San Giovanni Laterano – Roma

    when Egypt became a Roman province, the obelisks began to be transport-ed to Rome.They were later forgotten, but gained a new lease of life in the Rome of the Popes. From the 16′ century onwards thirteen obelisks were “rediscovered” and erected in some of Rome’s famous squares. Their use in an urban setting is thought to be attributable to Sixtus V (Pereta. 1585-1590). He monumentalised symbolic squares in key places in the city by positioning obelisks there, and placed crosses at their peaks as a testimony of the continuity between pagan and Christian Rome. One noteworthy exam-ple is the obelisk in the centre of St. Peter’s Square, which was transported there by the architect Domenico Fontana on a wooden tower made of oak This obelisk was brought to Rome by the Emperor Caligula (37-41 AD) and originally positioned in the middle of the wall separating the oval track of the private circus linked to the Horti, the renowned imperial gardens in theVatican where the apostle Peter was martyred. Some of the obelisks transported to Rome can now be found in Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano (New Kingdom); in Piazza del Popolo (New Kingdom): behind the apse in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore: in Piazza della Minerva (remounted on a base in the shape of a small elephant designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini); and in Piazza Montecicorio.

 

  • THE GALLERY OF MAPS
    As we leave the Belvedere Palace and move down the long gallery on the second floor which connects the Papal Palace and the Sistine Chapel, we can admire, ha
THE GALLERY OF MAPS - Vatican museum tour
THE GALLERY OF MAPS – Vatican individual tours

one part of the corridor, the cycle of mural paintings dedi-cated to the Maps. The main figures behind its design and creation at the end of the 16h century were Pope Gregory XIII (Boncompagni, 1572-1585), who wanted to dedicate a cartographic picture to the NI. hole of Italy, and the cosmog-rapher and mathematician lgnazio Danti. who painted the cartoons of all the geographical panels and managed the whole project. Girolamo Muziano and Cesare Nebbia coordinated a small army of painters and stucco decorators. The “signatures” of the two protagonists are clearly recognisable: the Pope’s coat of arms, a golden dragon on a red background placed over the entrance and exit to the Gallery, and the carllouche in which Tgnazio Danti signs the project, discernible on the first map when entering

Italy - THE GALLERY OF MAPS - Vatican museum tours
Italian peninsula – THE GALLERY OF MAPS – Vatican private tours

from the right, north of the Sallentina Hydramti Terra (Southern Puglia). The innovative nature of the Gallery The custom of decorating the walls of monumental buildings with depictions,of maps can he traced hack to ancient Rome. This trend continued throughout the Middle Ages hal when compared with similar rooms from the time, the Vatican Gallery laid claim to undisputed originality both in terms of its considerable size (120 metres long) and more es-pecially its display concept. The maps of Italy were set out along the walls in such a way as to form a three-dimensional model of the whole peninsula. The two long walls hold the regions touching the Adriatic coast on the right and those touching the Tyrrhenian Sea on the left. The cartographer Danti prepared the cartoons of the 40 panels he and Pope.

 

  • THE PAPAL PALACE
    Hen was the first part of the Papal Palace built? In view of the ancient ,irigins of the very first building and all the extensions which have been .shied over time, it is extremely difficult to isolate the original structure. In actual fact the Popes only lived solely in the Vatican after the Avignon Exile (1305-1377) and consequently Nicholas V’s reign (1447-1433) and the construction work he carried out on the Palace coincided with the beginning of a new chapter as far as the Papal
Apostolic Palace - Vatican individual tour
Apostolic Palace – Vatican tours

residence was concerned. Even when the popes lived its the Lateran, they considered the Vatican area to be of the utmost importance and soon acquired a residence next to St. Peter’s Basilica which would allow them to be near the Prince of the Apostles’ tomb. The earliest available information dates back to the 5. century AD to the thne of Pope Symmachus (498-514 AD), who built the first buildings destra temple of St. Peter’s, that is to say along the north and south sides of the Basilica, although it seems as if these buildings fell into disrepair soon afterwards. When Pope Leo IV (847-855) had a series of great walls built, the Vatican area started to become a safer place than the Lateran, but it was only after the year 1000 that a palalium novum was constructed on Symnsa-chus’ old avorksile, extended years later by Pope Innocent Ill (Lotario di Segni, 1198-1216). This construction stood on the slopes of

THE PAPAL PALACE - VATICANO
THE PAPAL PALACE – Vatican individual tours

the mons sac-corum, a hill to the north of St. Peter’s which is now the Courtyard of St. Damasus (Cottle di San Damaso). It looked like a small fortress and had a tower which corresponds to the current Chapel of Nicholas V (Cap-pella Niccolina). The building grew considerably under Pope Nicholas III (Orsini, 1277-1280), who began the construction work near the Parrot Cotut.curd (Car-tile del Pappagallo) (1). II was at arotuld this titne that the Vatican began to be thought of as a possible permanent papal residence, especially con-sidering how important it was for a Pope to live next to St. Peter’s tomb. Consequently, the Popes began to live permanently at the Vatican and its an intentional move, none of the official acts issued by Nicholas III are dated from the Lateran. The only part of Nicholas II s building open to visitors today corresponds to the Chiaroscuro Room (Sala dei Chiaroscuri) in the Chapel of Nicholas V and the Hall of Constantine (Sala di Costantino). The Palace of Nicholas III remained unrutished. Finally, there was apomeriunz next. to Palace, a walled orchard-garden which stretched from the mons saccortun to the lop of a hill to the north which is now roughly equivalent to Bramante’s great Belvedere Courtyard. courageously tackled the problem of the deterioration of St. Peter’s Basilica, calling in the architect Leon Battist.a Alberti and, as mentioned above, lie was an active contributor to the enlargement of the Papal Palace with the construction of a wing which closed off its perimeter creating the Parrot Courtyard. The new north wing built by Nicholas V included grana-des and nine cellars on the ground floor, the rooms now occupied by the Borgia Apartment on Use second floor, and Julius II’s apartment frescoed by Raphael above.

 

  • THE CHAPEL OF NICHOLAS V  The Chapel of Nicholas V, decorated by Fra Angelico, is a splen-did commemoration of the Papal Palace’s ornamentation during Niels, alas V’s era. It is cited in historical documents as “pars-a et secrete  (small and secret) and it was destined for the private or semi-private use of the Pope. It was accessible from the Studiolo-Cubicolo (small study/private bed chamber), situated its the morn nest to the small chapel, and constituted the
    Beato Angelico - Vatican tours
    Beato Angelico – THE CHAPEL OF NICHOLAS V – The Vatican individual excursions

    Palace’s most secluded wing. This lit-tle chapel is very different from the medieval Great Chapel (Cappel-la Nlagna), undoubtedly constructed before Nicholas V’s time, which. from the second half of the 16″. century onwards, took on the llama of the Sistine Chapel (12), destined for hosting events on the litur cal and ceremonial calendar of the Papal court. The chapel octopi the third and fourth floors of the military tower constructed for I nocent III, and was then incorporated into the new Vatican residen built by Nicholas V It is a rectangular-plan chaisel with a cross va and takes its name from the Pope who ordered the area to be fresco by Friar Giovanni da Fiesole known as Fra Angelico (Beata Angelico one of the greatest painters of the 15th century. This artist’s real n was Guidolino di Pietro but when he took the habit of St. Domenic the convent of Fiesole Ise also took the name Giovanni (John). Ile came known as Angelico .d then Beato (Blessed) due to the sancti of his conduct and the celestial beauty of the figures its

    The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen - Vatican museum tour
    The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen – Vatican museum tours

    his paintings. How is the pictorial composition of the chapel organised? In line wi mediaeval customs, a painted base runs around the lower section of room with false drapes hanging from nails. Rows of compositions, one above the other, narrate the main events its the life of the deacon St. phen, the first martyr of the Eastern Church, and the deacon St. Law-rence, the first inartyT of the Western Church. Who were the deacons of the early Church? The deacons were instituted both to carry out general charitable and benevolent activities and give assistance during Baptisms 1 and Eucharistic celebrations. The Doctors of the Church such as St. Au-gustine and St. Thomas are It in the upper corners its niches. The vault is divided into four sections by the ribs of the cross vaulting, holding the Four Erangelists with their symbols: Luke and the Bull, Matthew and the Angel. Mark and the Lion and John and Ilse Eagle. The Stories of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence are divided onto two levels on the side walls and the entrance wall by a string-cotu-se cornice between the last two floors of Innocent Ill’s tower. A recent restoration returned this cycle to its original splendour, conveying the strength of the faith in which Fra Angelico deeply believed; he sass- spiritual meaning and the divine order of the universe shining its everything and he was aisle to communicate it through his paintings. These are the only paintings to have survived from among those by this great master its the Vatican.

 

  • THE SISTINE CHAPEL
    The construction of the chapel. The new chapel was built for Sixtus IV and also bears his name. it stands in the place of an earlier mediaeval building which fulfilled the saute role of Papal Chapel. Based on architectural inspections carried Cappella Sistina - Vaticanoout on the new building it has been revealed that the previous one would have been an imposing structure with the same rectangular lay-out and dimensions (40 metres long and 13 metres wide). We do not have any information about its height and type of roofing but we lassos it was situated among the very first buildings of the Papal Palace built by Pope Nicholas Ill (Orsini, 1277-1280). Besides the topographical similarity of the Sistine Chapel  to the previous building, the mediaeval walls were incorporated
  • Cappella Sistina - Vatican individual tour
    Cappella Sistina – individual tour of the Vatican

    at least up to a certain point while the Sistine brickwork starts above the windows, reaching a total height of about 20 metres. The ffenellated exterior of the Sistine Chapel reveals its double pia-pose as a chapel and a fortress. Due to repeated structural problems over the following centuries, the exterior walls were pro-gressively covered with buttresses and a new brick wall. The section illustrated below shows the various stages of the Sistine Chap-el’s construction. The barrel vaults of three rooms wills Sixtus IV’s coal of quills can be seen below the paving, the elevation of the actual Chapel is set out on three floors and the rooms under the roof, which would become the guardhouse, looked over the open projecting gangway. Who was the architect of the Sistine Chapel? In historical sources two names are mentioned – Barrio Pontelli and Giovannino de Dolci. Pontelli is named by the wellknown artists’ biographer, Giorgio Vasari, as the designer of the Chapel. Giovannino Dolci, according to archive documents, receives) payments for the Chapel’s construc-tion although he is thought to have been a sort of building contra, tor wills the capacity to set up a large construction site rather than an architect

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VATICAN MUSEUM PRIVATE TOUR – VIDEO with original music by Adel Karanov guide and composer

Roman Elegies V

I feel I’m happily inspired now on Classical soil:

The Past and Present speak louder, more charmingly.

Here, as advised, I leaf through the works of the Ancients

With busy hands, and, each day, with fresh delight.

But at night Love keeps me busy another way:

I become half a scholar but twice as contented.

And am I not learning, studying the shape

Of her lovely breasts: her hips guiding my hand?

Then I know marble more: thinking, comparing,

See with a feeling eye: feel with a seeing hand.

If my darling is stealing the day’s hours from me,

She gives me hours of night in compensation.

We’re not always kissing: we often talk sense:

When she’s asleep, I lie there filled with thought.

Often I’ve even made poetry there in her arms,

Counted hexameters gently there on my fingers

Over her body. She breathes in sweetest sleep,

And her breath burns down to my deepest heart.

Amor trims the lamp then and thinks of the times

When he did the same for his three poets of love.   

— — — — —

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Villa d’Este – Villa Adriana – Villa Gregoriana

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Villa d’Este – Villa Adriana – Villa Gregoriana
 Private tour around Rome with guide and car
  • Tivoli private tour from Rome

Tivoli is reached by Via Tiburtina, the ancient Roman consular road which takes its name from Tivoli itself. The town was called Tibur in Roman times after the leg-endary Tibertus, venerated as founder of the city with his brother Catillus. The lat-ter gave his name to the hill which domi-nates Tivoli, rising on the right bank of the Aniene river. Set atop the first pre-Appennine buttress which suddenly rears up after the vast expanse of the Roman plain, Tivoli occu-pies a wonderful panoramic position: After traveling along the winding Via

Villa D este fontana centraletivoli d este giardinitivoli fontane tour rusrim

Tiburtina that climbs up the green, olive-clad hill, the large Piazza Garibaldi, bor-dered on the left by a spacious panoramic terrace, offers views onto the entire plain and Rome in the distance. Tivoli is best known for its three villas (Villa d’Este, Hadrian’s Villa and Villa Gregoriana), yet the city is rich with several other interest-ing monuments and sites that are worth visitine, if only in passing. The distin-guished monuments scattered through the town, their panoramic position, and the waters of the Aniene river, seemingly omni-present in waterfalls, cascades and conduits for industrial use, help create the intimate surroundings for the villas. A brief itinerary begins at Piazza Garibaldi, at the end of which, on the left, is Piazza Trento. Here rises the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (known to locals as S. Francesco), a beautiful 13th-century Romanesque-Gothic building. From Piazza Trento, nearby Via della Missione leads towards the old part of town, with its medieval quarter and Romanesque-Gothic churches. Narrow undulating streets and pic-turesque medieval houses on Via Campitelli and Piazza San Nicola are a pleasantly surprising feature of this small town.

rusrim tivoli tourvilla adriana tivoliTivoli Villa D Este soffitto

From here, Via del Colle leads to the Romanesque Church of San Silvestro, with particularly noteworthy 12th and 13th-century frescoes in the apse. Further down is the Duomo, dedicated to San Lorenzo, rebuilt in the middle of the 17th century. Highlights include the fine porti-co and the Romanesque campanile (12th century). Inside is an expressive Deposition from the Cross (one of the most famous wood sculptures of the 13th century) and tlx equally important Tryptich of the Savior, kept in an embossed silver casing. a valu-able piece of silver-craftsmanship that dates to 1449. The Duomo closes one of the short sides of what was once the Forum – the center of public and private life in the city – during Roman times, as evidenced by the many important relics found in the area. Going towards the Aniene, at the level of Ponte Gregoriano, is Piazza Rivarola. From there, Via della Sibilla goes left to one of the most famous monuments in Tivoli, the so-called Temple of the Sibyl. The true name of the temple is not known, though it is thought to have been dedicated to Vesta, or else to Hercules Saxanus, who was particularly venerated in Tivoli. The adjacent rectangular temple was probably the one dedicated to the Sibyl. The temples rise from a rocky footing, overhanging the romantic park of Villa Gregoriana.

  • VILLA ADRIANA – Tivoli private tour 

 Daily tour around Rome with guide and car

When Publius Elis Hadrian assumed power on the 2nd of August, 117 AD, the Roman empire was at its maximum extent and power. The second Spanish-born Roman Emperor (after Trajan) Hadrian was a wise politician and a first-rate military comman-der. Despite numerous victories, he under-stood that Rome’s conquering period had come to an end, and that the empire needed stability above all else. Perhaps the most complex and compelling of all Roman emperors, Hadrian was a highly-cultured man. He appreciated all  forms of art, but had a special passion for architecture, which he indulged even while traveling, as he was accompanied by an army of smiths, masons, jointers and car-penters. In England, Hadrian rebuilt London in 122 AD, about sixty years after the fire, and he also constructed the famous Valium, a long defensive wall that was named after him.

Emperor Hadrian - Tivoli tour
Emperor Hadrian – TIVOLI Daily private tour

In Athens, where he spent much of his time trying to strengthen Rome’s eastern boundaries against the incipient threat of barbarian invasion, the emperor carried out conspicuous restoration projects and enriched the city with new buildings of great beauty. Hadrian understood the strongest cultural and civil needs of his time, and brought together the refinements of Greek culture and the traditional governing skills which the Romans had developed over the cen-turies. This combination was embodied in the Villa he built. The charming mix of ruins and natural landscape makes it a powerful romantic attraction, and the deeply innova-tive nature of Hadrian’s architecture is self-evident in each building. As indicated by the dates printed on the bricks of the build-ings, this extraordinary complex was con-structed between the years 118 and 134 A.D. at the foot of Tibur – today’s Tivoli – a town founded in the 9th century BC on the border of the calcareous terrace stretching from the Tiburtini Hills toward the Roman countryside. Four years after the completion of the Villa, the emperor died at age 62 from cirrhosis of the liver in Baia, where he had gone seeking mild weather and a cure for the disease.

villa adriana car excursion
Villa Adriana – Tivoli private tour with local guide

It is difficult to imagine the scope of the original Villa; only one fifth of the three-hundred hectares that originally occupied the site are visible today. The project was so gigantic that neighboring Tibur went through a phase of urban and demographic expansion both during the construction of the Villa and afterwards, when many of its inhabitants were employed here. The Villa’s unique size and superb level of artistic refinement should not obscure the fact that large villas harmoniously set in the land-scape were a distinctive feature of Roman architecture. In fact, as early as the Republican era, the countryside was studded with spacious rustic villas fully equipped to work as efficient farms with ample storage facilities, olive presses, mills, fish reser-voirs, stables and pigeon-houses. In the 1st century BC. during the transition from republican to imperial times, the rustic Villa lost its role of productive center to become, instead, a status symbol. Accordingly, utili-tarian buildings were substituted with gym-nasiums, porticos, peristyles, vestibules, cryptoporticos, exedras, verandas and nympheums.

villa adriana tivoli
Villa Adriana Tivoli car tour from Rome

The first glorious example of how aristocratic villas might evolve into imperial residences was the Domus Aurea, the realization of Nero’s dream of building a city-villa. Almost nothing remains of the fantastic masterpiece of the “crazy emper-or”, but a few decades later Hadrian elevat-ed this native architectural invention to its highest splendor, infusing his Villa with the refined taste of a restless soul. Among Villa Adriana’s best-known features are the numerous references to those places that had most impressed the emperor’s memory and spirit, which are mentioned in a list by Elio Sparziano, one of the writers of the Historia Augusta. But only the Canopus, as we will see below, can be identified with one of these places. All the other names were sug-gested by Renaissance or later scholars. Modern scholars tend to recognize the mark of Hadrian’s political program, which for the first time put the provinces on par with Rome, in the Villa’s bizarre and even capri-cious reproductions of exotic architecture. But in reality, the designs employed were more a matter of personal interpretation than of mere imitation. Hadrian’s immediate suc-cessors, the Antonini, used the Villa as their summer residence, but after them the Villa fell into disrepair. Diocletian restored it at the end of the 3rd century AD. Shortly afterwards, according to several texts, Constantine embellished Constantinople -the new capital of the eastern empire – with many artistic pieces taken from Villa Adriana, which from that time shared with most of the great Roman monuments a des-tiny of neglect and damage (Gothic and Byzantine armies alternatively camped in the Villa’s grounds during the terrible Gothic wars) and even more devastating pil-lages in the 16th century, during the first archaeological excavations. About three-hundred masterpieces have so far been discovered and put on display in museums and collections all over the world. A mere trifle when compared to the crowd of statues and objects which once filled the Villa, vying in numbers with the incredibly rich contents of the Vatican Museums today. Some of these works definitely deserve mention, if only to imagine how they might have once adorned the Villa. Among Roman copies from Greek originals: the famous Discobolus of Mirone, housed in the Vatican Museums, and the Tvrannicides at the Naples’ National Museum (5th centu-ry BC); Praxitele’s Three resting satyrs, one of which is displayed at the Capitoline Museums in Rome (4th century BC). Unforgettable sculptures from the 3rd to the 1st centuries BC are the Niobide (Vatican Museums), the Crouching Venus by Doidaldas (Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome), the Two Centaurs with Faun in rosso antico marble (Capitoline Museums) and a Faun (Vatican Museums). Several original Roman sculptures such as the Colossal masks and the Ocean, Two telam-ons, Two peacocks, a Deer’s head and, above all, the gigantic Antinoos represented like Bacchus, are also on display at the Vatican Museums. Of remarkable interest is the large group of sculptures made in the Egyptian style, divided between the Vatican Museums and the Capitoline Museums. Only a few of the countless decorative pieces that contributed to the extraordinary elegance of Hadrian’s Villa are exhibited in museums and public galleries. The rest have disappeared into private collections, Finally, some splendid mosaics include: the Mosaic of the doves at the Capitoline Museums and the noteworthy collection at the Vatican Museums, which includes the panels with Animals, in the Room of the Animals; the Theater masks. which gave the name to the famous Gabinetto; and the cheerful Flower garlands in the library.

  • VILLA D’ESTE and GARDENS – Tivoli private tour

    Excursions around Rome – Tivoli car tour with guide 
Villa D este fontana centrale
Villa D’Este tour Tivoli from Rome with Car and Guide

Lola and Paolo Calandrino (whose names are carved inside the grotto, below the caryatids on the left) with mosaics formed by scales of rock and stuccos in high and low relief. There are also remarkable decorations made from enamel, shells and coral. The glazed majolica floor featured an array of colored figures, ranging from a kneeling monk to a pelican, an Etruscan profile to a country cottage, and geese to
fish. Some dates and names marked in rough letters are still visible: Portia. Nabuli, Amore, Cremona. Laurentina, Roma and Cornelia were perhaps names of women who had been clear to the artisans who worked on the floor. The extremely rich decoration must have been truly magnificent in its time.

MAPS OF VILLA D’ESTE GARDENS  – TIVOLI PRIVATE CAR TOUR 

Tivoli gardens map
Maps of the Villa D’Este gardens – Tivoli car excursions from Rome

Most of the precious sculptures that adorned the grotto are now in the Capitoline Museum in Rome, where they were placed after being acquired by Pope Benedict XIV; among those that remain are two statues of Amazons, Minerva and, notably, Diana the Humress with her bow, to whom the grotto is dedicated. Aside from the usual Caryatids and the relatively rare stuccoed quince branches, the walls are embellished with mythological scenes featuring Minerva, Neptune and several of the Muses. The fountain of Diana was a delightful work in relief, enlivened by gold and splendid colors, and by the precious stones that were set into the eyes of the Muses. Although some of the vivacious color has been lost, this still remains the most elaborate fountain of the Villa.

  • THE FOUNTAIN OF THE BICCHIERONE
    Fontana del bicchierone TIVOLI tour
    Fontana del Bicchierone – Tivoli private tour

    The central axis of the Villa leads down to the calm and elegant fountain of the Bicchierone (large drinking glass), con- structed in 1661 according to designs by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The fountain, therefore, does not belong to the original plan of the Villa, but was added about a century later. The cheerful, bold harmony and fine style of the Bicchierone clearly suggest the involvement of the great master. who worked on several projects at the Villa d’Este. The exquisite architectural lines of the fountain, representing a fine chalice held up by a giant sea-shell. owes its par- ticular charm to its harmonious and serene water play.

  • THE “ROMETTA ”From the “Bicchierone,” a cool avenue bordered by oaks and laurels turns off to the left and leads to the “Rometta  a fan- tastic recreation of
    La Rometta - Fontana - Tivoli car tour
    La Rometta fontana – Tivoli car tour

    some of the most important buildings in ancient Rome. The large platform, supported by an impressive foundation, offers a fine perspective. It was designed by Pirro Ligorio and perhaps also by Ippolito II himself, and built in 1570 by fountain-maker Luzio Mac- carone. It may have been used originally as a backdrop for a small open-air theater. It is reached by a small bridge that spans a curving canal, in the middle of which, along a course representing the Tiber, there is a scale model of the Tiberina Island in Rome in the shape of an ancient Roman boat. The island was the site of a hospital and the uncoiling serpent alludes to Aesculapius, the god of medicine. The canal is formed by the confluence of two streams, representing the Tiber and the Aniene respectively, which come from the rocky wall in the background; the former springs from a cavern housing a statue ofthe Tiber, While the latter falls in attrac-tive, frothy cascades from the base of the statue representing the Aniene. At the center of the Rometta is a statue of Victorious Rome, sculpted by Pietro Lamotte from a design by Ligorio, along with the She-wolf nursing the twins Romulus and Remus. Today little remains of the original models, due to the passage of time and the fact that part of the ensemble (including the Colosseum, Capitol Hill, Pantheon and the Arch of Titus) was demolished. Nonetheless, the Rometta is still an expression of pure beauty as water gushes forth everywhere: in the air, on the ground, in the light and in the shadows. Flowing glasslike and transparent, boldly darting into the air, softly arching, merrily falling down, crossing and overtaking and melting into one another, then fading away iri- descently into the air, in a glittering halo of life, light and celebration.

 

  • THE HUNDRED FOUNTAIN When first built, the Hundred Fountains must have been particularly impressive: marble gleaming, sculptures intact, waters
    The 100 fountains - Tivoli private tour
    Le cento fontante – Tivoli Car tour from Rome

    vigorous, inspiring in their sumptuousness, refinement and art. But no more – the marble is corroded and the trickling water reveals the patina of age. The Hundred Fountains border a long, straight path leading from the “Rometta” fountain (also known as the Fontana di Roma) to the Fontana dell’Ovato. The water falls into three long parallel channels arranged one above the other, forming one single water play. Allegorically, the thin spurts of water, fed by the hundred jets, represent the Aniene river which runs from Tivoli to Rome, where it flows into the Tiber. Hanging above the highest channel are sculptures of lilies, obelisks, boats and eagles, all the Cardinal’s beloved symbols: the lilies rep- resent unforgettable France, the boats St. Peter, and the obelisks unfulfilled papal power. The eagle belonged to the coat of arms of the d’Este family. The entire marble wall that separates the upper channel from the middle one was carved with episodes from Ovid’s Meta – morphoses. But what little remains of these carvings is hidden under a graceful mantle of verdant foliage. Pirro Ligorio designed the 100 meter-long path, and was responsible for the two orders of overlapping basins on the uphill side. Although the rest of the Villa is full of beautiful scenes, no other fountain matches the bewitching charm of the Hundred Fountains.

 

  • THE FOUNTAIN OF “OVATO”Coming from the Hundred Fountains and walking past the “Bollori” stairs and the Fontana dei Draghi (see below) to the left, the path leads to the Fountain of the Ovato, also known as the Fountain of Tivoli, built by Pirro Ligorio. The canal that brought the water of the Aniene river to the
    fontana dell ovato - Tivoli car excursion
    Fontana dell’Ovato – Tivoli car excursion from Rome with private guide and car

    Villa once flowed nearby. The fountain takes its name from its egg- like, oval shape, and it is perhaps the most typically baroque fountain in the Villa. The fountain appears Particularly elaborate, thanks to the profusion of rocks and ornamental boulders which Curzio Mac- carone showered upon it in order to convey the wild atmosphere of Mount Helicon. In execution, the intended “naturalistic” effect is actually rather bombastic. Nevertheless, the general appearance of the fountain is harmonious as well as impressive, and thus quite pleasing on the whole. The Pegasus (winged horse) atop the fountain is placed so well that it seems truly about to soar into the air. A good ways down the central axis is a simple statue of the Sibyl of Tibur (Sibin Albunea) holding the hand of her son Melicerte, symbolizing Tivoli. The statue is the work of the Flemish sculptor Giglio della Vellita. On either side are marble figures by Giovanni Malanca representing the Aniene and Herculanean rivers. The tall, rocky part of the fountain is bordered by a’half-moon terrace with a marble balustrade overhanging the mighty and crystal clear flow of water that drops down in a resonating dome. The basin below is lined by a semi-circle of pilasters which form of a nymphaeum. In the niches statues of nymphs hold vases from which water flows. This is the work of Giovan Battista della Porta, inspired by Pirro Ligorio. In the middle of the basin there is a large shell with open valves, originally in the basin of the nearby Hydraulic Organ. The colonnade of the nymphaeum is decorated with French lilies and d’Este family eagles depicted in mosaics (in poor condition). The parapet of the basin is lined with lively ceramics featuring details of the d’Este coat of arms. Opposite the fountain there are tables with Roman feet and two stucco statues in their own niches. Centuries old plane trees embellish the scene. Though perhaps not a perfect all-around work, the Fountain of the “0mm” is admirable for its general harmony and its profusion of ornamental motifs which often served as inspiration to numerous artists.

 

  • THE FOUNTAIN OF THE ORGAN
    fontana dell organo - tivoli tour
    Fontana dell’organo – Tivoli private tour

    A shady and attractive lane to the left leads to a clearing where stands the Fountain of the Organ, so named because it was once connected to a water-driven mechanism that imitated the sounds of an organ. The fountain consists of a large structure designed by Pirro Ligorio along baroque lines. A large oval basin at the base of the fountain is encircled by a lovely balustrade in mixed style. An apse opens at the center of the fanciful structure; four colossal rough-hewn Telarnones by Pirrin del Gagliardo support the sides of the mock arch; and above there are multi-col- ored stucco panels depicting mythological scenes with Orpheus, Marsius, Apollo and others. A profusion of ornamental motifs stretch – es across the facade, including abundant grotesque coats of arms, flowers, sirens, winged victories and sea-shells. Taken together, the stucco, rustic mosaic, scale, and fresco produce a sumptuous effect. The tympanum over the facade is inter- rupted at the center by the mighty eagle with its outstretched wings sitting atop the coat of arms of Cardinal Alessandro who continued the work of his uncle Ippolito at the Villa. . fountain is encircled by a lovely balustrade in mixed style. An apse opens at the center of the fanciful structure; four colossal rough-hewn Telarnones by Pirrin del Gagliardo support the sides of the mock arch; and above there are multi-col- ored stucco panels depicting mythological scenes with Orpheus, Marsius, Apollo and others. In the middle, beneath the apse, there is a delightful and beautifully proportioned Opening, designed by Bernini to house the Hydraulic Organ. Niches to either side contain mediocre ornamental statues. The floor of the apse juts out in front of the basin, forming a small terrace enclosed by a lovely balustrade of mixed style; on the sides, rows of cherubs cast their cool Jets. The Hydraulic Organ, for which the fountain was originally named. was the ingenuous creation of Claude Venard, and was once one of the wonders of the Villa. Water dropped through a conduit into an underground cavity, forcing a strong draft of air through the organ pipes. Another heavy jet of water slowly rotated a toothed copper cylinder mounted on an iron frame which moved the keys of the organ, playing madrigals and motets. The listeners found it difficult to believe that the music came from a simple hydraulic mechanism and not a band of hidden musicians. On the whole, this agreeable fountain’s lively beauty makes it worthy of its great fame as one of the marvels of the Villa.

  • THE FOUNTAIN OF THE DRAGONS The shady path to the right of the Fountain of the Ovato leads to the Fountain of the Dragons ( or the F ountain. of the
    Fontana del drago - Tivoli tour
    Fontana del Drago – car tour around Rome

    Girandola), the dominant motif at the very heart of the Villa’s garden. This is a fascinating fountain, at the center of which is a group of four horrid dragons “with wings and open mouths of the kind that frighten those who look upon them,” executed, according to legend, in just one night in September

 

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