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Private guides

Touristic guides in Italy

Private guides in Rome Vatican Florence and othe towns

+39 329 44 83 644  info@rusrim.com +39 389 5975 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy. Available individual tours with guide 24/h

музей спада рим екскурзияколизей рим екскурзияfinta prospettiva di borromini tous of rome

Inside the guided tour experience you can choose to visit important archaeological areas like dungeons, catacombs, ancient walls, sacred places and secret areas accessible to limited number of people. The collection of Greek and Roman classical sculptures offering sculptures of emperors, athletes, mythological figures and ancient deities can be viewed in an exclusive way.

david_michelangelo rome to florence tourexcurions tivoli rusrimlarte-di-raffael

During the guided tour in Rome, Florence, Siena and the Roman castles, you can have a break for tasting of local food preferred by Roman elite.
In summer the most popular organic ice cream shop in Rome is a place to drop in.

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Villa and gallery Borghese private tour

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

 Borghese Gallery private tour

3h tour with private guide from 1 to 5 pax Eur 50/h

galleria borghese rusrimгалерия боргесе екскурзиякараваджо рус рим тур

Gallery Borghese tour

Tour with private guide  Gallery Borghese – Rome

рим-барокко-турAmong the various museums located in the Villa Borghese complex, the most important is undoubtedly Galleria Borghese, situated in the Casino nobile (lodge) of the 17th century villa built for cardinal Scipione, where the important collection of painting and sculpture gathered during the 17th century, later integrated by acquisitions of the 18th and 19th centuries, is exhibited. Today the itinerary through the gallery includes eight rooms on the ground floor as well as the great entrance hall and the chapel, with statues in the center of the rooms, surrounded by the paintings on the walls and the decorations of the ceilings, which conStituted the thematic thread of the 18th century layout as well. In the entrance hall late Roman Statues line the walls, while the Roman statue of Marco Curzio, restored by Pietro Bernini, occupies the back wall. Canova’s Pauline Bonaparte as Venus Vic’trix may be admired in the hall known as del Vaso (of the vase).

villa borgese laghetto rusrim tours
Villa Borghese lake – Private tour in Rome

The room of the Sun (dd Sole) houses painting and sculpture such as Bernini’s David, a painting by BattiStello, and two controversial Still-lifes, attributed to Caravaggio by Zeri. Six of the twelve paintings by Caravaggio owned  by Scipione hand in the room of Silenus (del Silena). The upper storey of the gallery, with thirteen additional rooms, focuses principally on paintings, exhibited in chronological order and by schools. Thus it is possible to retrace the principal phases of Italian and Flemish painting between the fifteenth and 18th centuries, including many absolute masterpieces (Antonello da Messina, Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Guido Reni, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Rubens, Pietro da Cortona). In addition to Galleria Borghese, the villa also houses the refined Cam Museo (home museum) of the sculptor Pietro Canonica, in the 17th century construction by Gallinaro, known as the Fortezzuola (little fort) after it was transformed to a medieval style by the Asprucci’s in 1793. The Museo Carlo Bi/otti, opened q ite recently. is housed in the ex-Orangerie of the villa. known as Casino dei Giocbi d’Acqua (Fountains) during the 18th century. These rooms house the collection donated by the museums namesake, an halo-American entrepreneur and internationally known collector, including at numerous nucleus of paintings and sculptures by Giorgio de Chirico, Andy Warhol, Gino Severini and Giacomo Manzu.

TITIAN, SACRED AND PROFANE LOVE

GALLERIA BORGHESE TOUR WITH PRIVATE GUIDE

Amore Sacro e Amore Profano - TIZIANO
SACRED AND PROFANE LOVE – TITIAN – Rome Gallery Borghese indiviual tour

The work was painted by Titian in 1514, when he was 25 years old, for the wedding between Nicolo Aurelio, the Venetian Secretary of the Council of Ten, whose coat of arms is represented on the sarcophagus and Laura Bagamtto. daughter of the judge, from Padova. A fountain decorated with has relief like an antique sarcophagus fills the long side of the canvas, dividing the painting into two parts. Another caesura is caused by the branches behind the cherub who is Stirring the water with his arm. T he background is also unusual: on one side there is a church and a flock of sheep, and on the other a fortified city and two rabbits, symbols of love and fertility. Critics have long discussed the marked contrasr between the two female figures seated on the edge of the fountain, a contrast which had an illustrious precedent. In Fact Pliny recounts that the Greek sculptor Praxiteles had made two sublime Statues of Venus, one clothed and one without clothes. The two equally perfect women symbolise on the one hand «brief earthly happiness», with the attribute of the pct of jewels, and the other «eternal heavenly happiness», holding the burning flame of God’s love in her hand. The dressed Venus should therefore probably be interpreted as the pure bride who, close to Love, is assisted by the goddess Aphrodite in person. The gesture of the cherub stirring the water, source of life, in a sarcophagus. therefore probably represents love as intermediary between heaven and earth. The title is the result of a late 18th century interpretation based on a moralistic reading of the clothed figure. The universal fame of Titian’s work was confirmed in 1899, when Rothschilds the bankers offered a greater price For this painting than the estimated worth of the whole ofVilla Borghese including the works of art.

 

Villa and Galleria Borghese tour

 

 

CARAVAGGIO, DAVID WITH THE HEAD OF GOLIATH

GALLERIA BORGHESE INDIVIDUAL TOUR

A three-quarters view of David is presented, emerging From behind a dark curtain, sword in hand and proudly intent on observing the head of Goliath, still bleeding after the decapitation.

davide e golia caravaggio - Borghese gallery tour
Davide and Golia – Caravaggio – Borghese Gallery individual tour

Although the head of the giant is already severed, it is Still strongly expressive. The emotive sensitivity expressed on the wrinkled Forehead. in the mouth opened in the final breath, and in the intense, suffering glance of Goliath, is also felt in the flesh of the torso and the expression on the face of David. The brown trousers and torn shirt which he is wearing contain passages of great pictorial synthesis, involving the use of long, separate brushstrokes and the juxtaposition, in the case of the shirt, of pure whites and greys, in a subtle play of transparency. Caravaggio used his own self-portrait for the head of Goliath, while in the David the features of  his «little Caravaggio» are reproduced. A recent hypothesis suggests that the David is a youthful portrait of the artist, which would make the painting a double self—portrait. With conflicring feelings of disgust and pity, with one hand David brandishes his sword, on whose blade are letters which are not easy to decipher, but which may form the morto «Humilitas Occidit Superbiam»; the biblical hero is in fact a model of virtue. If one accepts the hypothesis that Scipione Borghese had commissioned Caravaggio for the work, it probably belongs to the last Roman period and would therefore be from before 1606. However, some scholars attribute the simplification of forms, the essential quality of the composition and the rapid application of brushstrokes to a later period. In this case the painting may be interpreted as a gift, sent by the attiSt to Cardinal Scipione Borghese in the expecration of being granted grace, as the lasr attempt at drawing attention to the desperation of his circumstances and his wish to return to Rome.

VILLA BORGHESE

Individual tours in Rome with private guide
villa borghese map
VILLA BORGHESE MAP

In 1605, Cardinal Scipione Borghese, nephew of Pope Paul V and patron of Bernini, began turning this former vineyard into the most extensive gardens built in Rome since Antiquity. The vineyard’s site is identified with the gardens of Lucullus, the most famous in the late Roman republic. In the 19th century much of the garden’s former formality was remade as a landscape garden in the English taste (illustration, right). The Villa Borghese gardens were long informally open, but were bought by the commune of Rome and given to the public in 1903. The large landscape park in the English taste contains several villas. The Spanish Steps lead up to this park, and there is another entrance at the Porte del Popolo by Piazza del Popolo. The Pincio (the Pincian Hill of ancient Rome), in the south part of the park, offers one of the greatest views over Rome.

A balustrade (dating from the early seventeenth century) from the gardens, was taken to England in the late 19th century, and installed in the grounds of Cliveden House, a mansion in Buckinghamshire, in 1896. The Piazza di Siena, located in the villa, hosted the equestrian dressage, individual jumping, and the jumping part of the eventing competition for the 1960 Summer Olympics. In 2004, a species of Italian snail was discovered, still living on the balustrade after more than 100 years in England.

Today the Galleria Borghese is housed in the Villa Borghese itself. The garden Casino Borghese, built on a rise above the Villa by the architect Giovanni Vasanzio, was set up by Camillo Borghese to contain sculptures by Bernini from the Borghese collection, including his David and his Daphne, and paintings by Titian, Raphael and Caravaggio.
The Villa Giulia adjoining the Villa Borghese gardens was built in 1551 – 1555 as a summer residence for Pope Julius III; now it contains the Etruscan Museum (Museo Etrusco).

The Villa Medici houses the French Academy in Rome, and the Fortezzuola a Gothic garden structure that houses a collection memorializing the academic modern sculptor Pietro Canonica. In the 1650s, Diego Velázquez painted several depictions of this Villa’s garden casino festively illuminated at night. Before electricity, such torchlit illuminations carried an excitement hard to conceive today.
Other villas scattered through the Villa Borghese gardens are remains of a world exposition in Rome in 1911.
The Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna located in its grounds has a collection of 19th- and 20th-century paintings emphasizing Italian artists.
Architecturally the most notable of the 1911 exposition pavilions is the English pavilion designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens (who later designed New Delhi), now housing the British School at Rome.

The villa’s gardens feature in one of Respighi’s Pini di Roma

Guides in Rome – Rusrim.com – Individual tours in Italy
Excursions and walking tours in Rome with art guides

Individual excursions with private guide in Rome, Vatican, Tivoli, Roman Castles and other central Italy towns

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Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

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ROMA Private car tours
ROME PRIVATE TOURS

ROME and AROUND ROME PRIVATE TOURS

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30 Car tours in Rome – Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria

Rome, Vatican, Florence, Siena, Tivoli, Roman Castles, Ostia, Arezzo, Assisi, Pompeii and Amalfi

Excursions with private guide in:
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Reservation excursions in: Rome, Tivoli, Roman castles – Castelli Romani, Viterbo, Ostia Antica, Lazio lakes, Tuscany, Florence,Siena,Chianti, Bolsena lakes, Arezzo, Assisi, Orvieto, Civita di Bagnoregio, Naples, Pompeii, Amalfi, Positano, with departure from Rome,Civitavecchia, Fiumicino and Ciampino  Rome airports
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+39 389 59 75 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 448 3644

 

Private tour Vatican Museum and S Peter basilica

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

Private tour of the Vatican Museum and Saint Peter basilica

Excursion 50 Eur/h from1 to 6 pax

Individual excursions in Rome and Vatican with private guide in English, French, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian
3 h tour from Rome and Vatican daily excursions from Civitavecchia Fiumicino and Ciampino airport
  •  Микеланджело ВатиканаКапела Систина РусримThe Belvedere Garden The idea of creating the Vatican Museums came about at the beginning of the Ili”‘ century when Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere became Pope, taking the name Julius II (1503-1513), and had important classical stat-ues such as the .Ipollo and the Laocoon transferred to the Vatican   anti   placed   in  the   Belvedere   Palace   garden,   which   had   been

Ватикана папски апартаменти transformed into a courtyard. The courtyard was designed by Donato Bramante, Nvho had drawn in-spiration from literary descriptions and the remains of villas and ancient palaces to recreate a natwal  environment wills the ancient

Vaticano Rusrimmarble stat-ues placed amongst orange, lemon, myrtle and has trees accompanied by a continuous flow of water from Ilse fountains. The classical statues were harmoniously positioned along the walls of Use courtyard in niches and in the centre as part of the fountain. This environment edified mid delighted the men of letters and assists who cause to Rome as guests of the Pope to study classical antiquities. The

raffaelloBelvedere Palace was built in the 15’h century for Innocent VIII (Cybo. 1-184-1492) as a papal summer residence. The view over the Ro-man countryside must have been spectacular. though it has now been replaced Its the sight of the city’s Prati and Trionfale areas. For the most part the original architecture has been retained. although Ilse Palace was altered in the 18th century. IVe can still reconstruct its original ap-pearance thanks to a series of drawings, engravings, maps and eleva-tions from the le and 17″‘ centuries. The main facade was dominated by a loggia with two avant-corps at the far ends and a craws of merlons running all the way around building. The Palace was actually part of a much huger complex. as this engrav-ing by Mario Cartaro clearly shaves. It can be seen on Ilse right, to Ilse north, with Ilse Garden holding Julius II’s statuses and its view over the roman cOuntr•side. On the opposite side to use south we cars sec the complex of the Papal Palace, first built by order of Pope Nicholas III  (Orsini. 1277-1280) who look into consideration the potential of the Vatican in becoming the fixed papal residence, fully aware of the importance of living in proximity to Peter’s tomb. The former papal residence was the Lateran and it was only after the Avignon Exile (1300-1377) that the Pope lived permanently at the Vatican. This illustration also Shows the connecting courtyard designed by Donato Bramante. Bramante and Ain. 11 were able to come to it unique understanding as their inten-tions converged to satisfy one in his search for a universal architectural language and the other in his plan to recover the splendour of ancient Rome. brought to life again in a Christian setting. lit this case Bramante’s study and reintroduction of classical architecture in the expression of a universal language Nvas operative in Julius Is plans to reorganise the Papal Palace, Among the various renovation projects. the architect designed the Belvedere Courtyard to link the summer Palace , ith the …

  •  The tournament and the joust In the joust two knights at a time with their lances at resc galloped towards each other trying to unseat their opponent. The tournament on the other hand. was a simulated battle between two groups of knights. each fighting to overpower the other and become manners of the battlefield. These tests originated in France and appeared in Italy from the l2‘” century onwards.The tournaments were held to celebrate victories, peace, alliances. marriages, religious festivals and important political events. Originally they hardly differed from real battles to the point where. at the end of the day. it was not unusual for many participants to suffer injuries or even death. Over time. and after numerous outcries. the games became less and less violent and took on the form of grand festivals in which participants used blunted weapons without their sharp points or covered them with a shield. It was not until the l7″‘ century, however. that the displays definitively shed their primitive nature involving the representation of a battle and became contests of grace and agility. often choreographed with music. Besides the sculptm‘es in the niches other statues were reused as ornaments for the fountains. Luder the papacy of Leo X (Medici, 1515-1521). Julius ll’s successor. a new discovery was added to the pontifical collection: the colossal statues of the Nile and the Tiber. These were placed in the centre of the courtyard among the orange trees on high plinths with the Medici coat of arms. the Nile with its back to the Laocoon and the Tiber opposite. Durhig Statua del nilo e Tevere - Vatican individual tourJulius II’s reign two other statues were added and used as fountains. ‘I”he-iriadnc was positioned in the corner of the courtyard above a sarcophagus held up by dolphins which served as a basin, and an ancient statue of a river thought to he the ‘Ii’gris or the Arno was placed in the niche at the other end of the same wall, it too being reduced to a fountain on a sarcophagus supported by turtles. The last additions were the world famous Torso. particularly admired by Michelangelo who declared himself to be a ‘disciple of the Belvedere Torso’, placed near the fragment of Hercules and Antaeus anti a statue identified as Henncs standing in the niche next to the Palace’s entrance. The walls of the. courtyard also held marble masks which were thought to have come from the Pantheon. This collection of sculptures transformed the Vatican into an ideal Parnassus – the hill of the Muses which inspired the creative process in all its forms – the very one which Raphael painted at aromid the same time on one of the walls of Julius 11’s apartment on the third floor of the Papal Palace with the intention of recapturing and studying the work of classical civilisations, a practice which was considered to be very important during the Renaissance. The testimony of an anonymous ambassador from the Veneto region. who saw the Belvedere Garden when he made his visit of allegiance to the new Pope Adrian VI (Florensz, 1522—1525). is very effective in providing a description of the area. He recounts a beautiful garden with lush grass. laurds. a magnificent orange tree and more particularly the ancient statues of the Tiber and the Nile which gushed with water. the Apollo. the Lam-muand finally the exquisite l‘tmus.
  • What is a museum? According to the International Council of Museums (ICoM)”a museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its develop-ment, open to the public. which acquires, conserves, researches, communi-cates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment.” Why a museum? Every time we enter a museum and walk through the various rooms we make an ideal journey, a sort of itinerary of the soul which allows us to re-turn to
    The vatican museum - tour with guide
    Vatican museums – Private tours Rome and Vatican

    the origins of Man and consequently to piece together the collec-tive identity of the whole of humanity on its voyage through history. During this eternally unique and fascinating journey, however, we must keep in mind that we are faced with a fragmented situation. incomplete in the partial and fragmented display of each work of art and of each object which can never-theless restore traces of truth to us, like the fragments of a mirror. The origin of the word Where does the word “museum” come from? The term has ancient Greek origins stemming from the noun museion or rather “temple, shrine, or seat of the Muses” — the goddesses who, according to ancient mythology, in-spired creative thought in all its shapes and forrns.They were the supreme inspirers of Man’s intellectual activities such as poetry, oratory, music, histo-ry, mathematics and astronomy. Originally the seat of the Muses was prob-ably meant to be on a hill or in a wood and not in a building. The noun museion. referring to a building, was used to indicate the Great Museum ofAlexandria in Egypt, a religious institution in which study and re-search were placed under the protection of the Muses.This museum was built in the century sc and included lodgings for the academic commu-nity of men of letters and scientists, rooms and porticoes for reading, study-ing and conversing, various works of art and more especially the great cul-tural institution of the famous library. Both these institutions were founded on the initiative of the ruling Ptolemy dynasty and represented a cultural reference point for the whole of the Mediterranean at the time, contain-ing specially dedicated areas and a building for teaching and research under the auspices of the Muses. Plato and Aristotle also organised their schools, the Academy and the Lyceum respectively, as places conceived for the cult of the Muses. The birth of the museum as an institution The museum as an institution has deeply-rooted and distant origins and was founded thanks to our inclination for gathering together and collecting all kinds of objects at risk of being damaged over time. The first collections of art had religious connotations both in ancient Egypt and in Greece, for example the objects of worship in the temples and grave goods. In Roman times the practice of secular collecting arose after great military conquests and the arrival of the spoils of war in Rome. Noble hous-es and villas, temples and porticoes were filled with works of art, especial-ly of Greek origin. This is supported by historical sources and by archaeo-logical findings. Pliny, for example. in his Naturalis Historia lists a series of Greek statues and paintings in the so-called Portico of Octavio, and findings at Pompeii and Herculaneum like the series of bronze portrait sculptures of philosophers in the library of the Pisoni family villa. In the Middle Ages the Church, and therefore all places of worship, became the favoured destination for commissions and collections of works of art as educational and religious [ messages could be communicated through them. for example the frescoes or the mosaics depicting the episodes of the Old and New Testaments or the lives of saints along the churches’ naves, which were aimed at bringing wor-shippers and pilgrims closer to the great themes of faith (Bibb° pauperum, the [ Bible of the Poor) using a simple and immediate means of communication. In the 15. century and then during the Renaissance with the renewed in-terest in the study of classical antiquity, the spread of humanistic culture j and the reconsideration of works of art from an independent aesthetical Ipoint of view, there was not a court in Italy which did not also become a home for ancient works of art and a source of commissions for contempo-rary craftsmen. Milan. Mantua, Ferrara. Urbino and Florence came to house i splendid collections and the very same artists and humanists became coi-1 lectors. With Humanism collecting became a method of investigation and the collector became a philosopher, a theologian who would search for the order of the world in his collections. Collections began to blossom with naturalta,artificialia and mirabilia which included antiquities (Egyptian. Greek. Roman and Christian), gems, coins. marble objects, scientific and musical in-, struments, portraits of illustrious men, fossils, minerals, coral, various other objects (talismans. lamps, ethnographic findings from far away continents, stones), rare animals (crocodiles. shells) and plants (exotic fruits). Essential-ly these collections did not just include man-made objects (artificialia), they also included natural discoveries (naturalia) and items which excited admi-ration (mirabilia). For the humanists from Petrarch and Poggio Bracdohni to Retro Bembo at the beginning of the 16°’ century. a paradigm of all this was

  • The Vatican Museums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    Papa - Giulio II - Vaticano
    Papa Giulio II – Musei Vaticani

    During the Counter-Reformation in the middle of the 16‘” century the tradition of collecting was opposed and expurgaled with harsh words; in reference to the ancient sculptures collected in the Vatican. St. Pius V (Ghislieri, 1566-1572) declared: ‘sunt idola profana’ (‘these are profane idols“). F urlherrnore, the great new construction site of St. Peter‘s required unprecedented effort and attention so the Popes of the l7m century had to concentrate on the colossal project. indirectly imposing athe “study”, a place where books joined all the various antiquities constitut-ing a local variation on the European model of the so-called “Wunderkam-mer” or “cabinets of curiosities”, embryos of the Museum as we recognise it today, a laboratory of history and knowledge of the world. The penetration of Humanism in Rome was at the root of the Papal col-lections and their usage by scholars and artists, as well as the collections on display in the large houses and courtyards of the great families. These collections revealed refined cultural awareness and they became tools for orchestrating agendas and political plans. Julius II’s plans for the statue gar-den, for example, can be interpreted in this light. He gathered together sculptures which called to mind the protagonists of the Trojan War such as the Laocoon, the Apollo and the Venus Felix reminiscent of Aphrodite, and the group of Hercules and Telephus reminiscent of Aeneas with his son Ascanius. The Pope wanted to create a real Virgilian theme which would link the stat-ues together to communicate a precisely-conceived political agenda. Just as Virgil celebrated the origins of Rome through the Trojan War and Aeneus’ adventures in the Aeneid in accordance with Augustus’ political agenda to exalt the city’s centrality and the imperial family, Julius II used his “Virgilian” statues and played on his own name lulius  put himself in the direct line of the Gens liulia, Caesar and Augustus’ family, with the aim of heralding a new golden age for recently-established Christian Rome. There was also a public dimension to collecting in Rome which became more marked after Sixtus IV’s (della Rover, 1471-1481) “dbnation” CO the Roman people of large bronzes with great symbolic value.They were trans-ported from the Lateran CO Capitoline Hill and became the nucleus of the future Capitoline Museums. However, it was during the 18 century. the Age of Enlightenment, that the modern concept of the Museum took shape, that is to say a public institu-tion open to everyone aiming to safeguard cultural heritage and promote its understanding.This institution was therefore a creature of the Enlight-enment in Europe; it was during this era that an architectural space was designed for the first time to give a universally recognisable form to the museums. Previously, works of are had been simple decorative elements in the large houses and villas which received them. Now a new awareness arose which underlined the importance of making the cultural heritage formerly restricted to the enjoyment of a limited and elite circle acces-sible to everyone. It also exposed the necessity of designing a building, a home for the works to be collected; a container conceived especially for its contents.This century, therefore, witnessed the birth of the great mu-seums and after various expansion works and changes to the organisation of the collections. Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-1740) decreed the opening of the Capitoline Museums.

 

  • Bramante’s Staircase (Scala del Bramante) A little further on, alter passing
    scala del Bramante - Vatican museum individual excursion
    Scala del Bramante Vatican private tour

    Iltrough a small vestibule, we come to Rramante’s Staircase, a spiral flight of stairs enhanced by a gran-ite colonnade made for Julius II (della Rovere, 1503-1513). The graded ramp was built as one of the entrances to the Palace and its structure with wide and low steps made it possible to go up and down easily even on horseback. It is characterised by an elegant colonnade which displays the three architectural orders, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, changing ac-cording to the level you are on as you move upwards from the bottom.

 

  • Octagonal Courtyard (Cortile Ottagonale) Moving back, we come to the Octagonal Courtyard, the heart and ini-tial location of the Vatic. Niuseunts.
    Octagonal Courtyard - vatican individual tour
    Octagonal CourtyardVatican museum tour

    Originally there was a square, or-ange tree garden decorated with statues Julius If had built Icy Bramante. The Apollo, the Laocoon and the Izernis Felix were installed in the three cappelleile (small shrines) along the Courtyard’s main wall, the one the Pope’s guests would see in front of them as they arrited in the garden front Rratnante’s Staircase. In the le century Clement XIV ordered the open area to be closed off by an octagonal portico designed by Simonetti, giving the Courtyard its current appearance. The shorter sides are called Cabinets (Gabinetti), and here we eats admire the most important statues adorning Julius II’s ancient courtyard.

 

  • The statuary The statues and their origins When we admire masterpieces of classical statuary we have to remember that we are standing before Roman copies of Greek statues. Statues, in Greece. were linked to politics and religion so we must try to imagine there outdoors. in temples, shrines. the Agora. libraries, theatres. gymnasia and as ornaments on tombs. The military campaigns conducted by the Romans in the Mediterranean af-forded various opportunities of coming into direct contact with the thriv-ing centres of Greek civilisation and the inevitable result was that countless Greek works of art — the spoils of war — began to flow into Rome.The first objects came from Syracuse, which was seized and sacked in 212 BC by Gen-eral Marcus Marcellus.According to the historian Livy the conquest of Syra-cuse was ‘the very beginning of enthusiasm for Greek works of are (XXV), and this was corroborated in Marcellus’ biography, written by the Greek Plutarch, in which we can read that the General ‘to illustrate his triumph. and adorn the city, carried away with him a great number of the most beautiful ornaments of Syracuse. For, before that. Rome neither had, nor had seen. any of those fine and exquisite rarities: nor was any pleasure taken in graceful and elegant pieces of workmanship: (Life of Marcellus, 21). Seeing as the origi-nals did not satisfy demand, Roman copies began to be made of the Greek originals and entire schools transferred their activities to Rome to work for the buyers.This became one of the main factors in facilitating the mania for private collecting reflecting Catholic tastes which, far from appreciating the shapes and forms of Greek art, concentrated on making the works fit in with their architectural setting. The materials The materials chosen so make the statues were extremely diverse: wood. terracotta, bronze, limestone, and marble with a preference for the white varieties, porphyry and granite. The favoured materials were usually the durable ones. partly due to the need to withstand outdoor conditions and atmospheric agents. For the same reasons. as well as for aesthetics. the statues’ surfaces were painted. also partly to mitigate the violent effects of the light. There was a progressive transition from full to partial polychromy, fache-tated by the artists’ discovery of the marble’s beauty. However, the use of colour on the statues never completely disappeared. just as the artists also continued to spread a protective layer of wax on them. Distinctive colours were also used on the bronzes as well as embellish-ments in enamel. ivory and mother of pearl for the natural rendering of the eyes and mouth. Unfortunately most of the Greek statues in bronze have been lost as they were melted down in later eras. so the existence of origi-nals is extremely rare and the result of fortuitous circumstances. Luckily the Roman copies in marble from the original Greek bronzes have been mostly well preserved and handed down to us intact.Thanks to these statues, and by studying and comparing various copies of the same model in reliefs, on coins and in glyptics. we can laboriously trace back to the archetypal form of the Greek original. How can a Roman marble copy be told apart from a Greek bronze original? The presence of supports reveals the works true origins as metal has more elasticity than stone and does not break as easily.The protruding parts of a the “study”, a place where books joined all the various antiquities constitut-ing a local variation on the European model of the so-called “Wunderkam-mer” or “cabinets of curiosities”, embryos of the Museum as we recognise it today, a laboratory of history and knowledge of the world. The penetration of Humanism in Rome was at the root of the Papal collections and their usage by scholars and artists, as well as the collections on display in the large houses and courtyards of the great families. These collections revealed refined cultural awareness and they became tools for orchestrating agendas and political plans. Julius ll’s plans for the statue gar-den, for example, can be interpreted in this light. He gathered together sculptures which called to mind the protagonists of the Trojan War such as the Laocoon, the Apollo and the Venus Felix reminiscent of Aphrodite, and the group of Hercules and Telephus reminiscent of Aeneas with his son Ascanius. The Pope wanted to create a real Virgilian theme which would link the stat-ues together to communicate a precisely-conceived political agenda. Just as Virgil celebrated the origins of Rome through the Trojan War and Aeneus’ adventures in the Aeneid in accordance with Augustus’ political agenda to exalt the city’s centrality and the imperial family, Julius II used his “Virgilian” statues and played on his own name lulius  put himself in the direct line of the Gens liulia, Caesar and Augustus’ family, with the aim of heralding a new golden age for recently-established Christian Rome. There was also a public dimension to collecting in Rome which became more marked after Sixtus IV’s (della Rovere, 1471-1481)  the Roman people of large bronzes with great symbolic value. They were transported from the Lateran  Capitoline Hill and became the nucleus of the future Capitoline Museums. However, it was during the 18 century. the Age of Enlightenment, that the modern concept of the Museum took shape, that is to say a public institu-tion open to everyone aiming to safeguard cultural heritage and promote its understanding.This institution was therefore a creature of the Enlight-enment in Europe; it was during this era that an architectural space was designed for the first time to give a universally recognisable form to the museums. Previously, works of are had been simple decorative elements in the large houses and villas which received them. Now a new awareness arose which underlined the importance of making the cultural heritage formerly restricted to the enjoyment of a limited and elite circle acces-sible to everyone. It also exposed the necessity of designing a building, a home for the works to be collected; a container conceived especially for its contents.This century, therefore, witnessed the birth of the great mu-seums and after various expansion works and changes to the organisation of the collections. Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-1740) decreed the opening of the Capitoline Museums.  I metal statue do not need co be supported while sculptures in stone need  help to stop these parts from cracking away from the, main structure. It goes without saying that artists who used bronze had almost unlimited free-dom in portraying moving or stretched out figures. The revolutionary new developments in statuary: the study of anatomy and naturalise The oriental influence on early Greek statuary is clear. The workmanship, the use of proportion and the poses of the figures are taken from Egypt (which boasted a long tradidon in large-scale sculpture) both for the stat-ues depicted standing and seated as well as those in motion. Soon, however, Greek statuary broke away from the earlier traditions and chose a new di-rection. Egyptian artists portrayed objects irrespective of the, position in space following a two-dimensional concept of reality.The unvarying aspects in their execution were therefore the front-facing position of the statues whether seated or standing, their great size (Egyptian statues were colos-sal). their lack of autonomy from the architecture (the statue could be con-fused with an architectural element in place of a pillar or column), the lack of anatomical detail and study of a portrait and the preference for durable materials. In ancient Egypt reality was represented as it was thought to be and not how a was actually perceived by the eye. Communicating an idea was considered to be the most important thing, for example the illustration of religious and cosmic principles, rites and cults and the celebration of the Pharaoh’s divinity. In the ancient world traditions generally carried great weight and resistance to innovation was strong, especially in Egypt where some conventions re-mained practically the same for millennia.The open spirit of the Greeks and thee- readiness for research and change lessened these traits and although they recognised she value of traditions. followed a code of expression and a system of binding rules, Greek artists made constant advances, moving away from abstraction and drawing nearer to naturalism; statues made their first steps into three-dimensional space. Soon after, Greek sculptors had to deal with problems linked to the representation of the body in motion, its twists and turns. and they realised that it did not necessarily have to stand on the soles of the feet, just as it did not have to face forward. Another great innovation was the study of anatomy with Man being the absolute centre of attention of Greek artists. The first step in this direc-liOn was the need to make statues life-size instead of the colossi of Egyp-‘ descent. and this led to more attention being given to anatomical detail sbrough the careful observation of still and moving bodies: athletes became ibe pre-eminent source of inspiration. Consequently, attention to anatomi-tai detail manifested itself in a love for the human body. its harmony, beauty ingourThis led the artists, right up the Hellenistic era, to avoid poi-‘saying the body’s declining forms like illness and old age whenever possible. preferred to depict subjects like gods, heroes. illustrious men, athletes the deceased, whose likenesses were destined for temples. shrines, por-ticoes and funerary monuments. Artists In the ancient world wrests in the ancient world were considered mostly to be artisans and in the Greek world the distinction was also very subtle.Technical ability was so im-portant for the Greeks that the expression “well made” was the highest combent an artisan, or a technites, could receive.Art was therefore considered so be an ability and the concept of original and independent artistic creation rernained beyond ancient ways of thinking.

 

  • Apollo Cabinet (Gabinetto dell’Apollo) Around the portico of Ihe courtyard in a clockwise direction we come the Apollo Cabinet.  Statue of Apollo “del Belvedere”
    Apollo - Vatican museum private tour
    Apollo – Vatican individual tour

    was statue was brought to the Vatican by Julius II and placed in one of the niches around the courtyard. It was admired by Winclvelmann Goethe and at an even earlier time by Michelangelo. It is a Roman copy the Hadrian era (II century Ad) or a bronze original by the sculpture – Leochares (IV century BC) which was displayed in the Agora of Athens. It depicts Apollo, who almost seems to appear before the viewer as a sudden apparition in all his divine magnificence. According to ancient mythology  Apollo, the god of music and poetry, was represented on the mytical mountain of Parnassus to preside over the Muses, who were tought by the ancients to inspire all the foremost intellectual activities of Man. In this regard, Raphael’s representation of Parnassus in Julius Its study on the second floor of the Papal Palace is eNtraordinary. Apollo was also a warrior god, capable of bringing about a quick death by striking with his bow anal arrow. In Homer’s Iliad, for example, he fights for the ‘firojans against the Greeks. The statue shows the god (tressed as an archer. In his left hand he holds the bow and in Isis right he grasps the arrow he has just drawn from the quiver. The god’s gaze is magnificent as he looks towards an undefined and faraway point in the distance. He has a chlamys, a sort of mantle, thrown over his how-arm and there is a snake on the tree trunk reminiscent of his victory at Delphi over Pythons, Gala’s monstrous serpent child. The tripod is also well-known as one the emblems of Apollo, also a god of divination, on which Pythia, a sort priestess, sat to (lel iVer her prophecies. A solemn feast was held at Delp to commemorate Python’s death and Apollo’s purification. Although this statue is a copy it displays all the originality and the achiev ments of Greek sculptors in the 4° century BC giving us the chance to a preciate Use statue’s movement in three dimensional spare.

 

  • South porticoStatue of Rivers (known as Tigris or Arno) and sarcophagus with Ainazonomachy Julius II’s “garden” held a series of statues used as parts of fountains as is the ease of this statue of Rivers. This fluvial statue is a Roman copy from the Hadrian era (2nd century AD) of a Greek prototype from the He lenistie era. Alexander’s foundation of the Empire was a highly important event Statue of Neptune - Vatican individual tourfor Greek art as it became the figurative language of almost the known world; at the same time Greek art came into contact and interacted with other cultures. We therefore refer to art from the era following the 5th and ,4th centuries BC not as Greek but Hellenistic art, as this name evoked tlse title given to the empires founded by Alexander’s successors in the East, who divided the territory into three great Kingdoms (the Kingdoms of Macedonia, Syria and Egypt). In the high Hellenistic age (from the 3rd century Bc) one of the characteristics of the statuary- was the variety of figurative themes represented. They did not just portray gods. mythical heroes, illustrious characters and athletes, as artists did in the classical era, they also depicted children, animals, personifications of the natural world, foreigners and barbarians. This statue of the fluvial deity is known to be the result  a series of restorations, with have allowed the statue to be used to form the higher section of the fountain for the Statue Garden with a basin made of a sarcophagus with an Amazonomacky. Which parts have been restored? The first is the right arm holding lire water-bearing vase, which is deco-rated with a ring bearing the Medici coat of arms. ‘this emblem initially caused the work to be identified as a personification of the river Arno. but in actual fact the Medici coat of arms refers to Pope Leo X (Medi-ci, 1513-1521), who probably commissioned the work’s first restoration. The second is the magnificent head, which is reminiscent a the Renais-sance style and seems similar in terms of expressiveness to the Moses sculpted by Michelangelo for Julius Ifs fimerary monument. The main episodes of the Greek mythological repertoire were often represented on sarcophagi with the protagonists being the gods who meddled in the affairs of men and the heroes who featured prominently in battles and various other undertakings. Naturally the episodes judged to be the most suitable for funerary allegories were chosen. In this case the well-known mythical theme of the Anzazonomachy seas well-suited to become a funerary allegory for soldiers’ sarcophagi as it recounts the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons fought both on foot and on horseback. leaving many soldiers dead on the battle-field. This battle took place during the Trojan War when the Amazons, the female warriors descended from the god of war Ares, sent a con-tingent led by their Queen Penthesilea to help King Priam of Troy. The Amazons were defeated by the Greeks and their Queen was killed by Achill.. The sarcophagus dates back to the 2″ century so.

 

  • Laocoon Cabinet (Gabinetto del Laocoonte)   Statuary   group   of  the  Laocon As tradition has it, the Trojan priest Laocoon and his two sons were killed by terrible serpents sent from the sea by Athena and Poseidon. The priest had
    Statua del Laoconte - Vatican museum tour
    Laoconte – Vatican museum tour

    objected to letting the wooden horse into the city of Tmy, advising instead to loan it. It had been left as a votive offering to Athena from the Greeks, who in the mean time pretended to go away. When laced with this wondrous sight, however, the Trojans convinced earls other to accept the horse with the Greek heroes hidden inside, sealing the city’s fate. This group of statues portrays the climactic point in which the monsters coil themselves around the ill-fated heroes’ bodies. Thereafter, Laocoon be-came an emblematic and tragic example of what would happen to those who opposed the inevitable course of events, in this case the events which foretold that Troy should be destroyed and that Aeneas would emerge from the flames to start a new family line with its descendents destined to found the city of Rome. This work of art was foetid in 1506 on Esquiline Hill in the area where the emperor Nero’s Donuts Aurea formerly stood. It was immediately acquired by Julius 11 who placed it in the famous gar-den of tile Belvedere Palace, marking the beginning of the formation of the renowned group of statues. As we have seen the !Aomori. group was full of important symbolic meanings. It is the starting point of a specifi-cally thought-out route which continues with the Apollo (who fought on the Trojans`side) moving on to the Venus Felix ….

 

  • The marble “zoo”
    After the Octagonal Cowlyard we come to the Room of the Animals (Sala degli Animali)  where we can admire a real zoological museum made of marble, that is to say a rich animalistic repertoire which also includes imaginary and exotic animals. Some are ancient while others have been significantly restored or resculpted by restorers and sculptors front the 18″‘ century. Hellenistic sculptors
The marble zoo - Vatican museum individual tour
The marble zoo – Vatican individual tour

were open to all kinds of figurative subjects and they particularly focussed on animals. partly due to more advanced scientific knowledge about their appearance and behaviour. The Hellenistic era was characterised by a great interest in the sciences and a predilection for carrying out all kinds of experiments in all fields of knowledge With people studying mathematics, geometry, geography, astronomy, medicine and botany. Moreover, art came to take on the characteristics of a mirror reflecting new developments. So why create a marble roof Its foundation was un-doubtedly favoured by 18 ,century naturalistic interests, in line with the new horizons reached by biological sciences and in light of the new encyclopaedic culture of the Enlightenment. As mentioned previously. some of the works of art here have been heavily restored, so this small museum within a museum can also be studied in terms of the trend for collecting rare and exotic objects as well as for the decorative tastes of the 10th century and the history of restoration. In a small loggia on the right, to the north. there is a magnificent bust of Pius VI contemplating his museum and little marble zoo. At the end of the 181″ century this MOM was known by,two names, the Room of the Rivers (Station (lei Vituni) and the Room of the Animals. Thanks to ancient prints we know that the renowned statues of the Tiber and the Nile stood here for some time. These personifications suited this environment extremely well as rivers, like animals, were considered to be part of the natural world. in contrast to the world of men. he-roes and gods, the main characters in the Pius-Clementine Museum’s other rooms. During the French plundering, however, the statues of the Tiber and the Nile were removed and taken to Paris for the new Louvre Museum, with only the Nile later finding its way back to Rome. Deprived of its rivers, the room took on the sole name of the Sala degli animali The tamed animals almost seem to come alive before our eyes, from birds, aquatic creatures, wolves, lynxes, lions and panthers to the group of deer being attacked by dogs and the sculptures of mythical beasts like the centaur, the griffin and the Minotaur. The collection is completed by figures whose names are indissolubly linked with animals, like Meleager, the brilliant hunter from Greek mythology mid Mithras killing the bull. There are also two ancient polychrome mosaics set in the paving with still life scenes of flora and fauna. last but not least, let its not forget that this repertoire of animals before its also holds a wide, though not complete, selection of marble as the sculptors used large quantities of coloured varieties to make the ani-mals seem more lifelike. This room allows its to understand the Greco-Roman world’s rapport with nature seen from a mythological, bucolic, hunting and zoological point of view, with the portrayal of exotic and rare animals extraneo to local wildlife, and also from a geological point of view, thanks to variety of the stones.

 

  • Bound Room (Sala Rotonda) The magnificent Round Room  with its hemispheric coffered vault and the eye in the centre telling in the light particularly brings to mind great Homan buildings such as baths. The niches around the walls hold-ing the statues, the mosaic and even an ancient utensil such as the large red
    Sala Rotonda - Vaticano tour
    Bound Room – Sala Rotonda – Vaticano tour

    porphyry cup all complete the effect. The statues on display here include an emperor and a hero, subjects which filled and decorated indoor and outdoor locations in ancient Rome.

 

  • Colossal statue of Claudius portrayed as Jupiter This statue comes from the centre of Lanuvium and is thought to have been one of the honorary statuses which adorned forums, porticoes and theatres. Here, Emperor Claudius (41-54 An) Colossal statue of Claudius - Vatican toursis portrayed as Jupiter. In every provincial town or colony, the Roman architects, first task was to erect a Capitolium similar to the one in Rome dedicated to the Capitoline triad ofJupiter, Juno and Minerva. Jupiter is the Roman god likened to the Greek figure of Zeus and appears as the god of the sky, the light of day, lightning and thunder: the eagle is the bird which carries Jupiter’s lightning bolt so it has become a symbol of strength and power. This is the reason why it bectune the insignia of every Roman legion and hence.

 

  •  Colossal bronze statue of Heracles The exceptional nature of this statue lies in its material — bronze. Bronze statues are rarely conserved as people often melted them down in times of metal shortages. This statue was struck by lightning and
    bronze statue of Heracles - Vatican museum excursion
    Colossal bronze statue of Heracles – Vatican excursion

    was buried in the place where it fell (as indicated by the engraved letters on the travertine slab closing off the hole) as it was probably considered inauspicious to melt down a statue struck by a celestial phenomenon. This work is thought to have been a part of the monumental complex of the Theatre of Pompey in Campus Martins, the first brick-built theatre in the city of Rome con-structed in the 1. century- Kc. Campus Nlartius was further north than the central Roman Forum area and its name reflected the military pur-pose for which it was mainly used. It was essentially a monumental area of the city; state ownership of the property and the level ground formed the ideal setting for erecting official, public buildings, hence the presence of numerous porticoes, groves, temples and buildings for performances such as theatres and baths. The statue of Hercules is thought to have been one of the many statues and decorative items. which would have adorned this magnificent plain between the Tiber. the Pincian Hill, the Capitoline Hill and the Quirinal Hill. Heracles is the most famous hero of all classical mythology and leg-ends linked to him mainly revolve arotmd the Cycle. of the twelve la-boum that is to say the tasks the hero tackled. distinguishing himself for his strength and coinage. This bronze Ileracles is depicted with some of the instantly recognisable attributes which allude to these tasks such as the club, the lion skits and the apples of Hesperides. Heracles’ weapon of choice, the club, was carved by the hero himsell.

 

  •  The Greek Cross Room  – A monumental entrance: The Greek Cross Room Originally the Greek Cross Room (Sala a Croce Greca), created by the architect Michelangelo Simonetti, formed the montunental entrance way to the Musetun of classical collections. It was built for Pope Pius VI. who reversed the previous V lolling route. In the past people laud entered the museum from the other side through the so-called Square Vestibule (with the inscription “MUSES M CLEMENTINVM” still visible on the architrave) because Pope Clement XIV had considered it to be more prac- ‘ deal, directly linked as it was to the Papal Palace through the east wing. When the new construction work began under his
    Sarcofago di Sant Elena - Madre di Costantino
    Sarcofago di Sant Elena – Madre di Costantino – musei Vaticani

    successor and more especially when the museum became public, this t)esv monumental en-trance was built, marked by the inscription Museum Pium. The great entrance gateway is trained by two gigantic Egyptian-style telamons from Hadrian’s villa. The Emperor went on numerous trips to the East, during which he absorbed the culture of the great civili-sations, hence, when he constructed Isis magnificent villa, he wanted the rooms to evoke the symbolic locations and Provinces of the Em-pire. in one area Hadrian constructed the Canopus, a vast space symbolising Egypt with the architecture forming a monumental map of the country with decorative items and Egyptian-style statues including the abovementioned telamons. Telamons were human-shape pillars and usually portrayed the god Osiris, the guardian of the ondervvorld, so they became also known as “Osiris pillars”. These telamons, crowned by capitals similar to the typical Egyptian capita in the form of lotus flowers, have a headdress and a short. skirt an their rigid and frontal stance is typical of Egyptian statues, blending in with the other architectural elements around them. Similar tela-mons decorate the great shrine of Isis (the Sister/wife of Osiris) and Serapis (the Roman Osiris) in Campus Martins. The “Egyptian-style-trend spread through Rome also touching upon religion. It was not difficult to find cults which had originated its Ancient Egypt in Rome and consequently it was equally comm.on to find shrines linked to their worshipping practices with architecture and adornments which invariably evoked this ancient civilisation.

 

  • Obelisks in Rome Pink granite obelisks were usually placed in pairs at the entrances to Egypt, temples and can be interpreted as symbols of the sun as they were thou& to be rays of sun turned into stone.This extremely hard stone was also asso-ciated with the god of the sun and as being a “Son of the Sun” was one of the royal prerogatives, many Pharaohs’ sarcophagi were made of granite. In 30 so
    Obelisc Laterano - Rome
    Obelisco a San Giovanni Laterano – Roma

    when Egypt became a Roman province, the obelisks began to be transport-ed to Rome.They were later forgotten, but gained a new lease of life in the Rome of the Popes. From the 16′ century onwards thirteen obelisks were “rediscovered” and erected in some of Rome’s famous squares. Their use in an urban setting is thought to be attributable to Sixtus V (Pereta. 1585-1590). He monumentalised symbolic squares in key places in the city by positioning obelisks there, and placed crosses at their peaks as a testimony of the continuity between pagan and Christian Rome. One noteworthy exam-ple is the obelisk in the centre of St. Peter’s Square, which was transported there by the architect Domenico Fontana on a wooden tower made of oak This obelisk was brought to Rome by the Emperor Caligula (37-41 AD) and originally positioned in the middle of the wall separating the oval track of the private circus linked to the Horti, the renowned imperial gardens in theVatican where the apostle Peter was martyred. Some of the obelisks transported to Rome can now be found in Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano (New Kingdom); in Piazza del Popolo (New Kingdom): behind the apse in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore: in Piazza della Minerva (remounted on a base in the shape of a small elephant designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini); and in Piazza Montecicorio.

 

  • THE GALLERY OF MAPS
    As we leave the Belvedere Palace and move down the long gallery on the second floor which connects the Papal Palace and the Sistine Chapel, we can admire, ha
THE GALLERY OF MAPS - Vatican museum tour
THE GALLERY OF MAPS – Vatican individual tours

one part of the corridor, the cycle of mural paintings dedi-cated to the Maps. The main figures behind its design and creation at the end of the 16h century were Pope Gregory XIII (Boncompagni, 1572-1585), who wanted to dedicate a cartographic picture to the NI. hole of Italy, and the cosmog-rapher and mathematician lgnazio Danti. who painted the cartoons of all the geographical panels and managed the whole project. Girolamo Muziano and Cesare Nebbia coordinated a small army of painters and stucco decorators. The “signatures” of the two protagonists are clearly recognisable: the Pope’s coat of arms, a golden dragon on a red background placed over the entrance and exit to the Gallery, and the carllouche in which Tgnazio Danti signs the project, discernible on the first map when entering

Italy - THE GALLERY OF MAPS - Vatican museum tours
Italian peninsula – THE GALLERY OF MAPS – Vatican private tours

from the right, north of the Sallentina Hydramti Terra (Southern Puglia). The innovative nature of the Gallery The custom of decorating the walls of monumental buildings with depictions,of maps can he traced hack to ancient Rome. This trend continued throughout the Middle Ages hal when compared with similar rooms from the time, the Vatican Gallery laid claim to undisputed originality both in terms of its considerable size (120 metres long) and more es-pecially its display concept. The maps of Italy were set out along the walls in such a way as to form a three-dimensional model of the whole peninsula. The two long walls hold the regions touching the Adriatic coast on the right and those touching the Tyrrhenian Sea on the left. The cartographer Danti prepared the cartoons of the 40 panels he and Pope.

 

  • THE PAPAL PALACE
    Hen was the first part of the Papal Palace built? In view of the ancient ,irigins of the very first building and all the extensions which have been .shied over time, it is extremely difficult to isolate the original structure. In actual fact the Popes only lived solely in the Vatican after the Avignon Exile (1305-1377) and consequently Nicholas V’s reign (1447-1433) and the construction work he carried out on the Palace coincided with the beginning of a new chapter as far as the Papal
Apostolic Palace - Vatican individual tour
Apostolic Palace – Vatican tours

residence was concerned. Even when the popes lived its the Lateran, they considered the Vatican area to be of the utmost importance and soon acquired a residence next to St. Peter’s Basilica which would allow them to be near the Prince of the Apostles’ tomb. The earliest available information dates back to the 5. century AD to the thne of Pope Symmachus (498-514 AD), who built the first buildings destra temple of St. Peter’s, that is to say along the north and south sides of the Basilica, although it seems as if these buildings fell into disrepair soon afterwards. When Pope Leo IV (847-855) had a series of great walls built, the Vatican area started to become a safer place than the Lateran, but it was only after the year 1000 that a palalium novum was constructed on Symnsa-chus’ old avorksile, extended years later by Pope Innocent Ill (Lotario di Segni, 1198-1216). This construction stood on the slopes of

THE PAPAL PALACE - VATICANO
THE PAPAL PALACE – Vatican individual tours

the mons sac-corum, a hill to the north of St. Peter’s which is now the Courtyard of St. Damasus (Cottle di San Damaso). It looked like a small fortress and had a tower which corresponds to the current Chapel of Nicholas V (Cap-pella Niccolina). The building grew considerably under Pope Nicholas III (Orsini, 1277-1280), who began the construction work near the Parrot Cotut.curd (Car-tile del Pappagallo) (1). II was at arotuld this titne that the Vatican began to be thought of as a possible permanent papal residence, especially con-sidering how important it was for a Pope to live next to St. Peter’s tomb. Consequently, the Popes began to live permanently at the Vatican and its an intentional move, none of the official acts issued by Nicholas III are dated from the Lateran. The only part of Nicholas II s building open to visitors today corresponds to the Chiaroscuro Room (Sala dei Chiaroscuri) in the Chapel of Nicholas V and the Hall of Constantine (Sala di Costantino). The Palace of Nicholas III remained unrutished. Finally, there was apomeriunz next. to Palace, a walled orchard-garden which stretched from the mons saccortun to the lop of a hill to the north which is now roughly equivalent to Bramante’s great Belvedere Courtyard. courageously tackled the problem of the deterioration of St. Peter’s Basilica, calling in the architect Leon Battist.a Alberti and, as mentioned above, lie was an active contributor to the enlargement of the Papal Palace with the construction of a wing which closed off its perimeter creating the Parrot Courtyard. The new north wing built by Nicholas V included grana-des and nine cellars on the ground floor, the rooms now occupied by the Borgia Apartment on Use second floor, and Julius II’s apartment frescoed by Raphael above.

 

  • THE CHAPEL OF NICHOLAS V  The Chapel of Nicholas V, decorated by Fra Angelico, is a splen-did commemoration of the Papal Palace’s ornamentation during Niels, alas V’s era. It is cited in historical documents as “pars-a et secrete  (small and secret) and it was destined for the private or semi-private use of the Pope. It was accessible from the Studiolo-Cubicolo (small study/private bed chamber), situated its the morn nest to the small chapel, and constituted the
    Beato Angelico - Vatican tours
    Beato Angelico – THE CHAPEL OF NICHOLAS V – The Vatican individual excursions

    Palace’s most secluded wing. This lit-tle chapel is very different from the medieval Great Chapel (Cappel-la Nlagna), undoubtedly constructed before Nicholas V’s time, which. from the second half of the 16″. century onwards, took on the llama of the Sistine Chapel (12), destined for hosting events on the litur cal and ceremonial calendar of the Papal court. The chapel octopi the third and fourth floors of the military tower constructed for I nocent III, and was then incorporated into the new Vatican residen built by Nicholas V It is a rectangular-plan chaisel with a cross va and takes its name from the Pope who ordered the area to be fresco by Friar Giovanni da Fiesole known as Fra Angelico (Beata Angelico one of the greatest painters of the 15th century. This artist’s real n was Guidolino di Pietro but when he took the habit of St. Domenic the convent of Fiesole Ise also took the name Giovanni (John). Ile came known as Angelico .d then Beato (Blessed) due to the sancti of his conduct and the celestial beauty of the figures its

    The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen - Vatican museum tour
    The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen – Vatican museum tours

    his paintings. How is the pictorial composition of the chapel organised? In line wi mediaeval customs, a painted base runs around the lower section of room with false drapes hanging from nails. Rows of compositions, one above the other, narrate the main events its the life of the deacon St. phen, the first martyr of the Eastern Church, and the deacon St. Law-rence, the first inartyT of the Western Church. Who were the deacons of the early Church? The deacons were instituted both to carry out general charitable and benevolent activities and give assistance during Baptisms 1 and Eucharistic celebrations. The Doctors of the Church such as St. Au-gustine and St. Thomas are It in the upper corners its niches. The vault is divided into four sections by the ribs of the cross vaulting, holding the Four Erangelists with their symbols: Luke and the Bull, Matthew and the Angel. Mark and the Lion and John and Ilse Eagle. The Stories of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence are divided onto two levels on the side walls and the entrance wall by a string-cotu-se cornice between the last two floors of Innocent Ill’s tower. A recent restoration returned this cycle to its original splendour, conveying the strength of the faith in which Fra Angelico deeply believed; he sass- spiritual meaning and the divine order of the universe shining its everything and he was aisle to communicate it through his paintings. These are the only paintings to have survived from among those by this great master its the Vatican.

 

  • THE SISTINE CHAPEL
    The construction of the chapel. The new chapel was built for Sixtus IV and also bears his name. it stands in the place of an earlier mediaeval building which fulfilled the saute role of Papal Chapel. Based on architectural inspections carried Cappella Sistina - Vaticanoout on the new building it has been revealed that the previous one would have been an imposing structure with the same rectangular lay-out and dimensions (40 metres long and 13 metres wide). We do not have any information about its height and type of roofing but we lassos it was situated among the very first buildings of the Papal Palace built by Pope Nicholas Ill (Orsini, 1277-1280). Besides the topographical similarity of the Sistine Chapel  to the previous building, the mediaeval walls were incorporated
  • Cappella Sistina - Vatican individual tour
    Cappella Sistina – individual tour of the Vatican

    at least up to a certain point while the Sistine brickwork starts above the windows, reaching a total height of about 20 metres. The ffenellated exterior of the Sistine Chapel reveals its double pia-pose as a chapel and a fortress. Due to repeated structural problems over the following centuries, the exterior walls were pro-gressively covered with buttresses and a new brick wall. The section illustrated below shows the various stages of the Sistine Chap-el’s construction. The barrel vaults of three rooms wills Sixtus IV’s coal of quills can be seen below the paving, the elevation of the actual Chapel is set out on three floors and the rooms under the roof, which would become the guardhouse, looked over the open projecting gangway. Who was the architect of the Sistine Chapel? In historical sources two names are mentioned – Barrio Pontelli and Giovannino de Dolci. Pontelli is named by the wellknown artists’ biographer, Giorgio Vasari, as the designer of the Chapel. Giovannino Dolci, according to archive documents, receives) payments for the Chapel’s construc-tion although he is thought to have been a sort of building contra, tor wills the capacity to set up a large construction site rather than an architect

Private guides in Rome and Florence – Rusrim.com – Tours in Italy

Individual excursions with private guide in Rome, Vatican, Tivoli, Capalbio and other central Italy towns

Excursions and walking tours in Rome with art guides

Individual excursions with private guide in Rome, Vatican, Tivoli, Roman Castles and other central Italy towns

PRIVATE  TOURS IN ROME and AROUND ROME – RUSRIM.COM
Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

ROMA

ROMA Private car tours
ROME PRIVATE TOURS

ROME and AROUND ROME PRIVATE CAR TOURS

TUSCANY PRIVATE CAR TOURS

Tuscany private car tour - Chianti Toscana Italia
Tuscany private tour

VIP PRIVATE TOURS EXCURSIONS IN ITALY – RusRim.com

30 Car tours in Rome – Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria

Rome, Vatican, Florence, Siena, Tivoli, Roman Castles, Ostia, Arezzo, Assisi, Pompeii and Amalfi

Excursions with private guide in:
Online booking individual tours in Italy with private guides
Reservation excursions in: Rome, Tivoli, Roman castles – Castelli Romani, Viterbo, Ostia Antica, Lazio lakes, Tuscany, Florence,Siena,Chianti, Bolsena lakes, Arezzo, Assisi, Orvieto, Civita di Bagnoregio, Naples, Pompeii, Amalfi, Positano, with departure from Rome,Civitavecchia, Fiumicino and Ciampino  Rome airports
Reservation contacts tours in Lazio – Tuscany Abruzzo with a private guide
+39 389 59 75 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 448 3644

Private walking tours in Rome

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

All tours will start and finish from
Piazza della Repubblica 20 – Rome 00100
or prefered places your Hotel.
Payment at the end of the tour

Individual excursions in Rome with private guide in English, French, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian

Walking excursion of Rome and Vatican with private guide

Individual excursion in Rome from 50 Eur/h from1 to 5 pax

С Мария на ангелитеTreviQuirinale RomaС Мария на Ангелите Рим ЕседраРепублика РимРим С Мария на Ангелите

 

Walking tour of the Vatican Museum and S Peter basilica

Individual excursion in the Vatican 50 Eur/h from1 to 5 pax

 Микеланджело ВатиканаВатикана папски апартаментиКапела Систина РусримraffaelloVaticano Rusrimрафаелло ватикана

Shopping tour in Rome

5h English excursions in Rome and Castel Romano with private guide

ROMA SHOPPINGroma shopping with private guide

 

Borghese Gallery individual excursion

3h Borghese gallery tour with private guide from 1 to 5 pax Eur 50/h

galleria borghese rusrimгалерия боргесе екскурзиякараваджо рус рим тур villa borgese laghetto rusrim toursрим-барокко-тур

 

Excursions and walking tours in Rome with art guides

Individual excursions with private guide in Rome, Vatican, Tivoli, Roman Castles and other central Italy towns

PRIVATE  TOURS IN ROME and AROUND ROME – RUSRIM.COM
Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

ROME and AROUND ROME PRIVATE TOURS

ALL VIDEO TOURS, ARTS AND MONUMENTS IN ITALY

TUSCANY PRIVATE TOURS

VIP PRIVATE TOURS EXCURSIONS IN ITALY – RusRim.com

30 Car tours in Rome – Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria

Rome, Vatican, Florence, Siena, Tivoli, Roman Castles, Ostia, Arezzo, Assisi, Pompeii and Amalfi

Excursions with private guide in:
Online booking individual tours in Italy with private guides
Reservation excursions in: Rome, Tivoli, Roman castles – Castelli Romani, Viterbo, Ostia Antica, Lazio lakes, Tuscany, Florence,Siena,Chianti, Bolsena lakes, Arezzo, Assisi, Orvieto, Civita di Bagnoregio, Naples, Pompeii, Amalfi, Positano, with departure from Rome,Civitavecchia, Fiumicino and Ciampino  Rome airports
Reservation contacts tours in Lazio – Tuscany Abruzzo with a private guide
+39 389 59 75 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 448 3644

Night private tour of Rome

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

  Night private car tour in Rome with local guide

by Adel Karanov – music composer and private guide with car in Rome

Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.

Car tour in Rome with  private guide Price for the tour NOT for person Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax

Piazza Barberini, Palazzo del Quirinale, Fontana di Trevi, Colosseo, Piazza Esedra, Fontana delle Naiadi, Basilica Santa Maria degli angeli, Circus maximus, Avenitino hill, Basilica di Santa Sabina, The orange garden, Rome rose garden, Order of Malta, Pyramid of Cestius,Piazza Venezia, Campidoglio hill, Bocca della Verità, Temple of Portunus, Tempio di Ercole Vincitore, Janiculum Hill, Tempietto del Bramante, San Peter square and basilica San Pietro – MIN 3h

Rome Night private tour – VIDEO Original water music by Adel Karanov

Individual evening and night private tour in Rome Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – English local guide with car and driver in Rome You will be picked from your hotel or Fiumicino – Ciampino Rome airport. Discount for the full night private tours.

Night tour of Rome

Individual guided private tours of main squares, fountains, churches and museums of Rome selected for you. The tour includes short walks on foot for visits of monuments and stops for taking pictures and a lunch or a coffee break.The sequence of monuments and their choice will display a historical and artistic evolution of the Eternal City. As well as a perfect overview of ​​the different types of styles in the arts of architecture and sculpture and painting. Many monuments, private art collections, entrances to palaces are offered exclusively by RUSRIM. tour guides. During the guided tour you can have a break for tasting of local food preferred by Roman elite. In summer the most popular organic ice cream shop in Rome is a place to drop in.

Piazza republica roma
Piazza republica – Roma – Rome night tour with driver guide
Piazza di Spagna Rome night tour
Piazza di Spagna Rome night tour

Night Sightseeing tour in Rome

Video with original electronic water music by Adel Karanov

We also offer a:

  • FLEXIBILE PROGRAMME
  • INSIDE TOURS OF MONUMENTS
  • SMALL GROUPS OF UP TO 6 PEOPLE
  • INDIVIDUAL CAR WITH A DRIVER
  • AN EXPERIENCED GUIDE

 Night car tour in Rome with driver guide – List of monuments

Rome night tour, with private guide and car. Luxury private night tour in english, french, bulgarian, russian, and ukrainian

Piazza Barberini square – Fontana del Tritone or Triton Fountain (1642–3) sculpted by Bernini

Palazzo del Quirinale – Official residence of the President of the Italian Republic

THE TREVI FOUNTAIN by NIGHT

Trevi fountain by nightFontana di Trevi  1629 designed by Italian architect Nicola The aqueduct served the hot Baths of Agrippa, and Rome, for over four hundred years. Salvi and completed by Pietro Bracci. The Fontana di Trevi, a happy and successful marriage of classicism and baroque, was planned as an exhibition of the Acqua Vergine by Nicola Salvi under the patronage of Clement XII. Pope Urban VIII Barberini had already instructed Gian Lorenzo Bernini to «transform» the piazza and the fountain. but the project was never carried out. Set along one side of Palazzo Poli, the Fountain, which was made by Nicola Salvi between 1732 and 1763, represents an original and imaginative fusion, in the Berninian Style, of architecture, sculpture and the natural elements which contribute to the Fountain’s unique character. The theme of the sculpture is the sea. The design is dominated by a charior in the form of a shell in which the great statue of Neptune by Pietro Bracci stands, flanked in the side niches by Health and Plenty, the works of Filippo Della Valle. The charior is pulled by marine horses. who are in turn preceded by tritons. The marine divinities are placed on rocks of irregular blocks of travertine. The fountain sprawls below the facade of the palazzo behind it, which is in rigidly classicising Style, based on the triumphal arch model, with further sculptures in niches as well as in the attic storey and an elegant balustrade. The surrounding houses crowd round the splendid monument, giving the impression of an amphitheatre, while the noise of the fountain’s water can be heard From the maze of surrounding streets up to the moment when the snow-white scene appears miraculously before the astonished eyes of the visitor. The Trevi fountain VIDEO

Piazza della Repubblica  – Piazza Esedra
 Fontana delle Naiadi
Night Rome car tour
Fontana delle Naiadi – Night Rome car tour

– Basilica Santa Maria degli angeli e dei Martiri (part of the Terme di Diocleziano emperor) by Michelangelo Buonarroti

Santa Maria degli angeli

Night car tour of Rome
The colosseum – Night car tour of Rome

Colosseo – Anfiteatro Flavio – Amphitheatrum Flavium – it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. From the moment it was built, the grandeur of the Flavian Amphitheatre has conditioned Rome’s urban landscape and it still dominates the ancient centre. Its arcaded surface was chosen as the theatrical background to the Via dei Fori lmperiali. It was the first amphitheatre to be built in Rome in the form of a monument. In the Republican age the gladiatorial games took place in the Roman Forum, where temporary wooden structures were provided for the occasion. Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, emerged victorious from the civil war which followed Nero’s death in 69 AD. As part of a coherent political scheme, the new Emperor decided to dedicate the huge urban spaces and works of art appropriated by Nero to the public, for their enjoyment.

Circus maximus- Circo Massimo – it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire

Avenitino hill – Colle Aventino 

The Aventino hill view
Rome private evening tour
The aventino hill view – Rome private evening tour

– Basilica di Santa Sabina and Porta lignea di Santa Sabina
– The orange garden – Parco degli aranci and the romantic view of Rome in Vatican direction
– Rome rose garden – Giardino delle rose – Over 1100 varieties of roses are grown there, many of them gifts from countries around the world.

– Order of Malta square – Sovrano militare ordine di Malta Roma – Piazza Cavalieri di Malta – Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or Order of Malta is the modern Rome-based continuation of the medieval Knights Hospitaller.   The entity retains sovereignty under international law, including permanent observer status at the United Nations,  issuing its own passports, currency and postal stamps with the Maltese cross insignia.

Piazza del Campidoglio – Night private tour of Rome

Rome private tour - piazza del campidoglio rome

Pyramid of Cestius – Piramide di Caio Cestio – ancient pyramid in Rome built about 18 BC–12 BC as a tomb for Gaius Cestius, a magistrate and member of one of the four great religious corporations in Rome, the Septemviri Epulonum. 

Best Italian ice cream shop and the old bar pasticceria

Privat evening tour of Rome - Isabella_di_Aragona_as_Mona_Lisa Raffaello
Privat evening tour of Rome – Isabella di Aragona as Mona Lisa – Raffaello

Piazza Venezia – Venezia square in ROME –  It takes its name from the Palazzo Venezia, built by the Venetian Cardinal, Pietro Barbo – later Pope Paul II , alongside the church of Saint Mark, the patron saint of Venice. The Palazzo Venezia served as the embassy of the Republic of Venice in Rome.

Colonna Traiana – Trajan’s Column – Roman triumphal column that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan’s victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate. 

Mercati di Traiano – Mercatus Traiani – Trajan’s Market was probably built in 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus.

Campidoglio hill – Piazza del Campidoglio and Michelangelo square- It was the citadel (equivalent of the ancient Greek acropolis) of the earliest Romans.

Foro Romano – Roman forum panoramic view

Theatre of Marcellus – Teatro marcello – Theatrum Marcelli – The theatre was 111 m in diameter and was the largest and most important theatre in Ancient Rome; it could originally hold between 11,000 and 20,000 spectators.

Piazza della Bocca della Verità – The square lies in the ancient area of the Forum Boarium, just in front of the Tiber Island; it takes its name from the Bocca della Verità. The fountain in front of the two temples, called Fountain of the Tritons, released by Carlo Bizzaccheri. Besides the church, dating back to the late Middle Ages, the square houses the Arcus Argentariorum, the Arch of Janus, the Temple of Hercules Victor and the Temple of Portunus, a deity related to the ancient river harbour.

– Temple of Portunus – Tempio di Portuno – Its Ionic order has been much admired, drawn and engraved and copied since the 16th century (see illustration, right).  The temple owes its state of preservation from its being converted to use as a church in 872 and rededicated to Santa Maria Egyziaca (Saint Mary of Egypt).

– Tempio di Ercole Vincitore – The Temple of Hercules Victor – Hercules the Winner or Hercules Olivarius – Dating from the later 2nd century BC By 1132 the temple had been converted to a church, known as Santo Stefano alle Carozze (St. Stephen ‘of the carriages).

– Fontana dei Tritoni – This fountain should be distinguished from the similarly named nearby Triton Fountain (Fontana del Tritone) by Bernini. The fountain was completed in 1715 by architect Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri, during the works for the accommodation of the square in front of the basilica. 

Janiculum Hill – Colle del Gianicolo – Rome panoramic view

– Tempietto del Bramante – Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio – 1502 Temple of Bramante is considered one of the first great building of the high Reinassence. Built on the top of the Gianicolo, the tempietto (little temple) was commissioned by the King of Spain to consecrate the place in which, according to medieval tradition, Saint Peter, the martyr, founder of the Christian Church and flat pope, had been crucified. The young architeCt Bramante conceived it as a genuine martyrium in antique style. with a central plan and a circle of perimeter columns. The building must have been placed in a large square, which, however. was never built. In spite of the reduced size, the space has been planned in grandiose, monumental Style. It is evidently based on the study of the rules of harmony of the Roman Vitruvius, who advised the use of the Doric order of columns for buildings dedicated to masculine divinitics or mythological figures famous for their sum and courage. The architeCt Bramante did in Fact use the Doric order for the tempietto. giving it an air of rigour and economy, which is also due to limited use of excessive decoration and the sober harmony of the volumes.


– Fontana Paolina o Fontana dell’Acqua Paola – Il fontanone The big fountain – It was built in 1612 to mark the end of the Acqua Paola aqueduct, restored by Pope Paul V, and took its name from him. It was the first major fountain on the left bank of the River Tiber.

Vaticano – The Vatican

Rome private night tour
Vaticano – The Vatican – Rome private night tour

– San Peter square The open space which lies before the basilica was redesigned by Gian Lorenzo Bernini from 1656 to 1667, under the direction of Pope Alexander VII.
The colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, frame the trapezoidal entrance to the basilica and the massive elliptical area which precedes it.
At the center of the ovato tondo stands an Egyptian obelisk of red granite, 25.5 metres tall, supported on bronze lions and surmounted by the Chigi arms in bronze, in all 41 metres to the cross on its top. The obelisk was originally erected at Heliopolis, Egypt, by an unknown pharaoh. During the Middle Ages, the gilt ball on top of the obelisk was believed to contain the ashes of Julius Caesar.

The Lovely night in Rome with local guide

Castel Sant’ Angelo – Roma di notte

castel sant angelo Roma

The Lovely Night

Now I leave this little hut,

Where my beloved lives,

Walking now with veiled steps

Through the shadowy leaves.

Luna shines through bush and oak,

Zephyr proclaims her path,

And the birch trees bowing low

Shed incense on her track.

How beautiful the coolness

Of this lovely summer night!

How the soul fills with happiness

In this true place of quiet!

I can scarcely grasp the bliss!

Yet, Heaven, I would shun

A thousand nights like this,

If my darling granted one.

—- —- —-

Santa Lucia – Palazzo Spada – ROME PRIVATE NIGHT TOUR

Rome tour by night - santa-lucia
Rome tour by night – Santa Lucia

ROMA

ROMA Private car tours
ROME PRIVATE TOURS
EVENING CAR TOUR OF ROME WITH LOCAL GUIDE

Evening tours of Rome

ROME and AROUND ROME PRIVATE TOURS

Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore – Rome with private guide
santa maria maggiore basilica - Rome night private tours
santa maria maggiore basilica – Rome night private tour

Ambient music by Adel Karanov composer and private guide 

TUSCANY CAR PRIVATE TOURS FROM ROME

TOSCANA – ITALIA

1010_ITa

 

 

30 Daily private car tours in central Italy: Lazio – Tuscany – Umbria – Abruzzo from Rome with private guide

Rusrim.com

Rome individual excursions with local guide

Tours in Florence, Siena, Tivoli, Roman Castles, and others towns

in

Booking tours
+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

 

Private car tours of Rome and Tuscany

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

30 TOP Rome private tours with local private guides – Lazio – Tuscany –Florence and Siena – Abruzzo – Umbria – Florence and Siena

Original video and music by Adel Karanov private guide in Rome

Car tours of Rome and Tuscany

Our guides in Italy are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.
Tours by Adel Karanov music composer and art guide with car
Daily tours in central Italy: Rome, Tivoli, Roman Castles, Tarquinia, Bracciano, Vico, Sutri, Florence, Siena, Orvieto, Arezzo, Assisi, Bolsena, Pompeii, Amalfi and Positano

Inside the guided private tour experience you can choose to visit important archaeological areas like dungeons, catacombs, ancient walls, sacred places and secret areas accessible to limited number of people.

Private car tours in Rome and Tuscany

Private car tour in Rome – english guide with car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax

Daily private car tour Rome and Vatican or Min 3/h Panramic private tour with local guide – Rome private tours for small group and individuals
AROUND ROME WINE TOURS WITH DRIVER GUIDE – VIDEO – MUSIC by ADEL KARANOV

san pietro panoramicrome private guidesarco di constantinoc6rome car toursLsthsrhy

ROME PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Private tour of Rome

Daily tour of Rome with local guide with car

Rome private tours with local guide
Daily tour of Rome

Vatican city private tour

Day tour of Rome with local guide and car

vatican private tours
Vatican city private tour

 

Villa Borghese Rome private tour

Day car tour of Rome with driver guide 

 

Villa Borghese - Rome private tour
Villa Borghese – Rome private tour

During the guided tour you can have a break for tasting of local food preferred by Roman elite. In summer the most popular organic ice cream shop in Rome is a place to drop in.

Rome private car tours   – Sightseeing tour in Rome with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Rome daily tour or Min 3/h Rome private tour with local guide

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Private sightseeing tour in Rome – Colosseum
Colosseum Rome private tour
Colosseum – Rome private tour
Rome private tour  – Piazza di Spagna
piazza di spagna - rome private tours
piazza di spagna – rome private tours
Car tour in Rome – Appia Antica
inusual rome private tour
Rome private tour – rusrim.com

Individual car tour – Private tour in Rome, with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Night – evening Rome Daily tour or Min 3/h private tour with local guide

Fontana di treviPiazza republica romaSan pietro fontana notte Campidoglio night RomeCastel S AngeloFontana delle tartarughe Roma

Individual tour with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax Car excursion from Civitavecchia PRIVATE TOURS WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Rome tour from Civitavecchia : Daily private tour or Min 5/h  with local guide

Luxury individual private tours Civitavecchia Rome Vatican and Lazio region

san pietro panoramicpanthonSan Pietro colonnata santa cecilia RomaTreviмост сант ангело рим

VIP private tours around Rome

Individual tour in Rome Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – english guide and car in Rome PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Rome and around Rome Daily car tour or Min 3/h private tour with local guide

shopping romecentro commerciale romeModa RomaEUK 070ferragamo

Car tours around Rome

  • Labyrinth of Time: Etruscan city of Sutri, Caprarola Palace and the Vico Lake with private guide

Individual car tour from Rome, with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

North Lazio Daily tour from Rome or Min 6/h private tour with local guide

sutri tombe etruschegayserLago di Vicopalazzo farnese caprarolasala delle mappesutri fontana  Vico Viterboterme papalisutri anfiteatro

 

Individual car tour in Florence and Siena with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Tuscany – Florence and Siena Daily tour from Rome or Min 8/h private tour from Rome with local guide

Siena duomouffizzi firenzesiena duomo foto d arte  ponte vecchio firenzefirenze s maria del fiorePiazza del campo Siena

 

Individual car excursion – Private tour in Tuscany from Rome with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Tuscany – Capalbio and Argentario Daily tour from Rome or Min 6/h private tour from Rome or Pisa – Florence with local guide

Orbetello ArgentarioNiki-de-Saint-Phalleargentario45-300x187Porto Ercole Monte Argentario20150923_155056porto santo stefano night20150923_16541320150923_154807capalbio

Car tour to Tarquinia from Rome with private guide

Private tour around Rome

Car tour from Rome with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 paxPRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Private tour around Rome – Tarquinia Daily tour from Rome or Min 5/h – Lazio private tour Tarquinia from Rome with local guide

etruschi lazio etruschi tarquinia cavalli alati Santa Severa Tarquinia dettaglio tarquinia piazza tomba etrusca lazio

 

Roman castles car tour with private guide

Culinary and wine private tour around Rome

Individual excursion Castelli Romani from Rome with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax The visit include: Nemi and Albano lakes + Castel Gandolfo and Frascati PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Private tour around Rome – Roman Castles Daily tour from Rome or Min 5/h – Lazio private tour from Rome with local guide

genzano romanolago di nemiponte-aricciasalumeriaVilla Grazioli - GrottaferrataNettuno Castellifrascati villa aldobrandinivilla grazioli Grottaferratawine tour italy

 

Tivoli private tour from Rome with local -private guide

Individual car tour with english private guide
Tivoli Villa D’Este, villa Adriana and Gregoriana

Individual exclusive car excursion Tivoli from Rome, with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Tivoli Daily tour from Rome or Min 4/h Tour around Rome – Lazio private tour from Rome with local guide

excurions tivoli rusrimvilla-d-este fontanarome to tivoli tour Villa D este fontana centraletivoli d este giardinitivoli fontane tour rusrimrusrim tivoli tourvilla adriana tivoliTivoli Villa D Este soffitto

 

Bracciano tour from Rome with private guide

Bracciano private tour from Rome Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – car with english guide and car – Tour from Rome PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Roman lakes Daily tour from Rome or Min 5/h Tour around Rome private tour with local guide

Bracciano CastelloBracciano lagobracciano relax Dolcelago di braccianoodescalchi palazzo

Ancient Ostia tour from Rome with private guide

Individual car tour Ostia Antica, with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Ostia Daily tour from Rome or Min 4/h car tour around Rome private tour with local guide

Ostia antica teatro romanoOstia AnticaOstia anticaOstia antica rusrim toursOstia rusrim tourscastello Ostia anticaRoman road rusrim toursappia antica rusrim toursRoma Mare

 

Vico and Sutri individual tours from Rome with private guide

Individual exclusive car tour from Rome to Viterbo province, with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Lazio lakes Daily tour from Rome or Min 5/h private car tour around Rome

sutri fontanasala delle mappepalazzo farnese caprarola

Lago di Vicoadmin-ajax (32)admin-ajax (35)

 

DISNEYLAND IN ROME AND AQUAPARK with private guide

Individual children tour in Rome with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Kids Daily car tour from Rome or Min 5/h around Rome private tour with local guide

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AQUAPARK children private tour around Rome with private guide

Individual tour Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – car and english guide in Rome with car
PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Summer children tour from Rome 5/h private car tour around Rome with local guide

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Bomarzo Viterbo private tour from Rome with private guide

Individual car tour from Rome with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Bomarzo tour from Rome 6/h private tour around Rome – Lazio region with local guide

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Excursion from Rome to Bomarzo VT Viterbo Lazio – exclusive private tour in north Lazio – Central Italy from Rome

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Biopark in Rome tour for children with private guide

Individual private car tour Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – car and english private guide and car Bioparco di Roma tour 
PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Rome Zoological garden – Daily tour  – Zoo Roma or Min 3/h

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Disco clubs of Rome

Music tour in Rome with DJ producer licensed guide

Individual tour Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – car and unique dj guide in Rome – private car tour

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Original music by Adel Karanov private guide and composer – Rome music clubs

Campania Region – Naples private tours from Rome

Amalfi Positano Sorrento Pompeii from Rome

Individual car tour in Amalfi coast with english private guide Eur 60 / h Max 6 paxPRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Naples area from Rome 6/h or Daily car tours Amalfi – Pompeii – NA with local guide

amalfi campaniaAmalfi panoramaAmalfi pittoresco Amalfi scalinataCostiera AmalfitanaPositano panorama

 

Private Car tours Tuscany from Rome with local guide

Exclusive car excursion Rome to Florence and Siena, with english private guide and car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax Florence and Siena individual excursion

PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Tuscany daily tours with local guides and car from Rome and Civitavecchia private tour from Rome or Florence Pisa with local guide

Siena duomouffizzi firenzesiena duomo foto d arte  ponte vecchio firenzefirenze s maria del fiorePiazza del campo Siena

Rome to Florence car tour with private guide

Tuscany private car tour Florence from Rome with local guide

PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

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Siena car tour from Rome with private guide

Tuscany private VIP private tour Siena from Rome

PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Siena duomosiena duomo foto d artePiazza del campo Siena

Sutri from Rome private car tour with local guide

Around Rome private car tour – Lazio and Umbria

Individual tour Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax –  car excursion from Rome with local guide
PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Vico and Sutri individual tours

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Bolsena Lake and towns around Rome VIP private tour from Rome with local art guide

Individual car tour from Rome to Bolsena lake – english private guide with car Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax

Daily tour from Rome or Min 5/h Lakes around Rome car tours with local guide

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Bolsena lake – north Lazio private car tours from Rome with local guide

PRIVATE TOUR WITH DRIVER GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

bolsena lake Private tour

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Luftbild von der Insel Bisentina im Lago di Bolsena, Italien.
Bisentina Island – Bolsena lake LAZIO Italy

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Orvieto private car tour from Rome with local guide

The most elegant and intelectual town in central Italy

Orvieto is a small city perched on a rock cliff in Umbria, Italy. Orvieto Cathedral, dating from 1290, has a mosaic facade and houses a marble Pietà sculpture. The Pozzo di San Patrizio is a 16th-century well shaft with a double spiral staircase. An underground cave network attests to the city’s Etruscan roots. Artifacts from this era, like ceramics and bronze items, are on view at the National Archaeological Museum.

Midelages town Orvieto – Umbria private tour from Rome with local guide

Orvieto private car tours

PRIVATE TOUR WITH GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

PRIVATE CAR TOURS IN ROME and AROUND ROME – RUSRIM.COM
Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

 

Individual tours with private art guides

Rome, Vatican, Florence, Siena, Tivoli, Roman Castles, Ostia antica, Arezzo, Assisi, Orvieto, Bolsena, Bagnoregio, Pompeii

Tours in central Italy towns from Rome with local guide in

Reservation contacts, car tours in Rome , Florence , Siena with guide
+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184