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Siena private tour from Rome

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Siena daily tour from Rome

by Adel Karanov Art guide and music composer
Daily car excursion in Siena from Rome with english guide
SIENA PRIVATE TOURS with GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Palazzo pubblico Siena VIDEO by Adel Karanov private guide in Tuscany

Siena individual car tour from Rome: Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – car with private english guide – Tuscany Car tour from Rome

Il Duomo di Siena – Tuscany private tour

siena car tour - duomo di siena

Siena car tour from Rome with private guide – private tour

Siena (Tuscany) is the perfect counterpoint to Florence. Self-contained and stillpartly rural behind its medieval, its attraction lies in its cityscape: a majestic Gothic whole that could be enjoyed without venturing into a single museum.
In its great scallop-shaped piazza, Il Campo, it has the lovelist of all Italian public squares; in its zebra-stiped duomo and the city whole construction, on three ridges, presents a succession of beautiful vistas over medieval cityscapes to the bubolic Tuscan contryside on all sides.
It is also a place of immediate charm: airy easy going and pedestranized. The most important moment of the year is the Palio, a breack horse race around the Campo, whose sheer excitement and unique importance to the life of the community is reason enough to plan your holiday around one of the two race dates – July 2 and August 16. The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation’s most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year.

siena private daily tour - palio

SIENA PRIVATE CAR TOUR

Inside the guided private tour experience you can choose to visit important archaeological areas like dungeons, catacombs, ancient walls, sacred places and secret areas accessible to limited number of people. The car tour includes short walks on foot for visits of monuments and stops for taking pictures and a lunch or a coffee break. The sequence of monuments and their choice will display a historical and artistic evolution of Siena. As well as a perfect overview of ​​the different types of styles in the arts of architecture and sculpture and painting. Many monuments, private art collections, entrances to palaces are offered exclusively by RUSRIM TUSCANY CAR EXCURSIONS FROM ROME

Piazza del Campo - Siena tours
Piazza del Campo – Siena – Tuscany – Individual tour

Piazza del Campo – Siena private tour

The Piazza del Campo, the shell-shaped town square, unfurls before the Palazzo Pubblico with its tall Torre del Mangia. This is part of the site for the Palio horse race. The Palazzo Pubblico, itself a great work of architecture, houses yet another important art museum. Included within the museum is Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s frescoes depicting the Allegory and Effects of Good and Bad Government and also some of the finest frescoes of Simone Martini and Pietro Lorenzetti.

Palio di Siena a Piazza del Campo – Siena – Tuscany private tour

Siena excursions with private guide

Palio di Siena private guide Palio Siena car excursion

The contrast with Florence are extended in Siena’s monumental and artistic high-lights. The city’s duomo and alazzo Pubblico are two of the purest buildings of Italian Gothic, and the finest of the city’s paintings – of with many are collected in the Palazzo’s Museo Civico and the separate Pinacoteca Nazionale – are in the same tradition. In its sculpture, Siena drew mainly on foreign artistsç the Florentines Donatello and Ghiberti worked on the front of the baptistery, while Michelangelo and Nicola and iovanni Pisano left their mark on the duomo.

SIENA PRIVATE TOUR – VIDEO

  • Duomo di Siena – The Siena Cathedral – Tuscany private tour

Siena excursion from Rome with guide and car

Duomo di Siena - Car tours in Tuscany
Siena Cathedral – Private tour Siena from Rome

Siena Cathedral is a medieval church in Siena, Italy, dedicated from its earliest days as a Roman Catholic Marian church, and now dedicated to Santa Maria Assunta (Holy Mary, Our Lady of the Assumption).

Few buildings reveal so much of a city’s history and aspirations as Siena’s cathedral, or Duomo (daily mid-March to Oct 9am-7.30pm; J. to mid-March and Nov-Dec 7.30am-lpm & 2.30-5pm; free), the magnet to which most visitors gravitate after tak-ing in the Campo. Complete to virtually its present size around 1215, it was subjected to constant plans for expansion throughout the city’s years of medieval prosperity. A project at the beginning of the fourteenth century attempted to double its extent by building a baptistery on the slope below and using this as a foundation for a rebuilt nave, but the work ground to a halt as the walls gaped under the pressure. For a while, the chapter pondered knocking down the whole building and starting from scratch to the principles of the day, but eventually they hit on a new scheme to re-orientate the cathedral instead, using the existing nave as a transept and building a new nave out towards the Campo. Again cracks appeared, and then in 1348 came the Black Death. With the population halved and funds suddenly cut off, the plan was abandoned once and for all. The extension still stands at the north end of the square – a vast struc-ture that would have created the largest church in Italy outside Rome.

The extersiena duomo foto d arteior Despite all the grand abandoned plans, the duomo, as it stands, is a delight. Its style is an amazing conglomeration of Romanesque and Gothic, delineated by bands of black and white marble, an idea adapted from Pisa and Lucca — though here with much bold-er and more extravagant effect. The lower part of the facade was in fact designed by the Pisan sculptor Giovanni Pisan°, who from 1284 to 1296 created, with his workshop, much of its statuary — the philosophers, patriarchs and prophets, now removed to the cathedral museum and replaced by copies. In the next century the Campanile was added, its windows multiplying at each level, as was the Gothic rose window above the doors. Thereafter work came to a complete halt, with the mosaics designed for the gables having to wait until the nineteenth century, when money was found to employ Venetian artists. Immediately above the central door, note St Bernardino’s bronze monogram of Christ’s name.

Siena private tours - piazza-del-campo

The pavement – Duomo di Siena – Tuscany private tour

Siena car excursions from Rome with private guide

Pavment - Duomo di Siena - car tour Siena
Pavment – Duomo di Siena – Car tour Siena

The pavement ‘Me facade’s use of black and white decoration is echoed by the duomo’s great marble pavement, which begins with geometric patterns and a few scenes outside the church and takes off into a startling sequence of 56 figurative panels within. ‘These were com-pleted between 1349 and 1547, with virtually every artist who worked in the city trying his hand on a design. The earliest employed a simple sgraffito technique, which involved chiselling holes and lines in the marble and then filling them in with pitch; later tableaux are considerably more ambitious, worked in multicoloured marble. Unfortunately, the whole effect can only be seen from August 7 to August 22; the rest of the year most of the panels around the central octagon are rather =imaginatively kept under cardboard wraps. The subjects chosen for the panels are a strange mix, incorporating biblical themes, secular commemorations and allegories.

Duomo - Siena individual tour from Rome

The most ordered part of the scheme are the ten Sibyls — mythic prophetesses who foretold the coming of Christ — on either side of the main aisle. Fashioned towards the end of the fifteenth century, when Sienese painters were still imprinting gold around their conventional Madonnas, they are total-ly Renaissance in spirit. Between them, in the central nave, are the much earlier Sienese she-wolf enclosed by the republic’s twelve cities (a) and the Wheel of Fortune (c), along with Pinturicchio’s Allegory of Virtue (b), a rocky island of serpents with a nude posed between a boat and the land. Moving down the nave, the central hexagon is dominated by Domenico Beccafumi’s Stories from the Life of Elijah (d). Beccafumi worked intermittently on the pavement from 1518 to 1547, also designing the vast friezes of Moses Striking Water from a Rock and on Mount Sinai (e — kept covered) and the Sacrifice of Isaac (1). To the left of the hexagon is a Massacre of the Innocents (g), almost inevitably the chosen subject of Matteo di Giovanni. It’s interesting also to note the choir stalls, in the context of the pavement. These use intarsia techniques of a superb standard and again were made between the mid-fourteenth and mid-sixteenth centuries.

Maesta del Duomo di Siena - Tuscany car excursions
Maesta del Duomo – Siena car excursions from Rome

The pulpit, sculptures and chapels The rest of the cathedral interior is equally arresting, with its zebra-stripe bands of mar-ble, and the line of popes’ heads — including several Sienese — set above the pillars. These stucco busts were added through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and many seem sculpted with an apparent eye to their perversity. The greatest individual artistic treasure is the pulpit. This was completed by Nicola Pisano in 1268, soon after his pulpit for the baptistery at Pisa, with help from his son Giovanni and Arnolfo di Cambio. The design of the panels duplicates those in Pisa. though they are executed with much greater detail and high relief. The carving’s dis-tance from the Byzantine world is perhaps best displayed by the statuette of the Madonna, whose breast is visible beneath the cloak for the first time in Italy, and by the Last Judgement, with its mastery of the human figure and organization of space. Come equipped with plenty of coins for lighting. Almost all the cathedral sculpture is of an exceptional standard. Close by the pulpit in the north transept are Tino di Camaino’s Tomb of Cardinal Petered (1318), a pro-totype for Italian tomb architecture over the next century, and, in front, Donatello’s bronze pavement Tomb of Bishop Pecci (1426). The Renaissance High Altar is Clanked by superb candelabra-carrying angels by Beccafumi. In the Piccolomini Altarpiece, the young Michelangelo also makes an appearance. He was commis• sinned to carve the whole series of fifteen statues here, but after completing saints Peter, Paul, Pius and Gregory in the lower niches he left for a more tempting contract in Florence — the David. Further Renaissance sculptural highlights are to be seen in the two circular transept chapels. The Cappella di San Giovanni Battista, on the left, focuses on a bronze stat-ue of the Baptist by Donatello, cast in 1457, a couple of years after his expressionist Mary Magdalene in Florence, whom the Baptist’s stretched and emaciated face recalls. The frescoes in this chapel, with their delightful landscape detailing, are by Pinturicchio, of whom more below. The Cappelli’ Chigi, or Cappella del Vote, was the last major addition to the duomo, the behest of Pope Alexander VII, another local boy, in 1659. It was designed by Bernini as a new setting for the Madonna del Vote, a thirteenth-century painting which commemorated the Sienese dedication of their city to the Virgin on the eve of

  •  The Baptistery – Siena – Tuscany private tour 
Baptistery - Siena car tour
The Baptistery – Siena private tour

The Baptistery The cathedral Baptistery is unusual in being placed beneath the main body of the church. It is an essential visit, containing one of the city’s great Renaissance works — a hexagonal font with scenes illustrating the Baptist’s life. To reach it, turn left out of the duomo, walk left down the side of the walls and follow the flight of steps down behind the cathe-dral; en route you’ll pass the Cripta delle Statue museum — not worth the opportunistic entrance charge. The cathedral chapter responsible for the baptistery font (1417-30) must have had a good sense of what was happening in Florence at the time, for they managed to cont• mission panels by Ghiberti (Baptism of Christ and John in Prison) and Donatello (Herod’s Feast), as well as by the local sculptor Jacopo della Quercia (The Angel Announcing the Baptist’s Birth). Jacopo also executed the marble tabernacle above, and the summit statue of John the Baptist and the five niche statues of the Prophets. Of the main panels, Donatello’s scene, in particular, is a superb piece of drama, with Herod and his cronies recoiling at the appearance of the Baptist’s head. Donatello was also responsible for two of the corner angels (Faith and Hope) and (with Giovanni di Turino) for the miniature angels on the tabernacle above. The lavishly frescoed walls almost overshadow the font, their nineteenth-century overpainting having been removed after a vigorous assault by the restorers. With your back to the entrance the best include (on the left arched vault lunette) a fresco of scenes from the life of St Anthony (1460) by Benvenuto di Giovanni, a pupil of Vecchietta; scenes from the life of Christ by Vecchietta himself (inside left wall of the central stepped chapel); and the same artist’s Prophets, Sibyls and Articles of the Creed (the main vaults), the last a repeat of a theme he would use in the Ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala

  • Santa Caterina – Siena – Tuscany private tour
Santa Caterina Siena Tuscany tours
Santa Caterina Siena individual tour

St Catherine’s house St Catherine’s fatuity home, where she lived as a Dominican tertiary – of the order but not resident – is a short distance away to the south of San Domenico. Known as the Casa e Santuatio di Santa Caterina The building has been much adapted, with a Renaissance loggia and a series of oratories – one on the site of her cell. The paintings here are mostly unexceptional Baroque canvases but it is the life that is important: an extraordinary career that made her Italy’s patron saint and among the earliest women to be canonized. Born Caterina Benincasa, the daughter of a dyer, on March 25, 1347 – Annunciation Day – she had her rust visions aged five and took the veil at age eight (sixteen in some versions), against strong family opposition. She spent three years in silent contempla-tion, before experiencing a mystical “Night Obscure”. Thereafter she went out into the turbulent, post-Black Death city, devoting herself to the poor and Monte dei Paschi di Siena Between the two monastic churches lies the heart of business Siena, the Piema Salimbeni, whose three interlocking palazzi have formed, since the fifteenth century…

Siena night private tour – walking private tour

MONTEPASCHI DI SIENA BANK – 1472 – THE OLDEST SURVIVING BANK OF THE WORLD

siena private tour - banca montepaschi di siena

Rusrim.com Siena car tours in central Italy from Rome or Florence

TUSCANY PRIVATE TOURS

  • Florence private tour from Rome , with private guide and car
  •  Siena private tour from Rome , with private guide and car
  •  Chianti private tour , with local guide and car
  • Argentario and Capalbio – private tour around Rome
  • San Gimignano – privat tour from Rome
  • Volterra – Private tour from Rome
  • Pisa – Private tour from Rome

1010_ITa

Individual excursions with private guide and car

Rome – Vatican – Florence – Siena – TivoliRoman Castles

Excursions with private guide in:
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Florence private tour from Rome

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

Florence day private tour from Rome

Daily car tour of Florence from Rome with local driver guide
VIP Florence private tour from Rome: Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax – car with private english guide – Tuscany Car tour from Rome R

FLORENCE individual and private VIP CAR EXCURSION with LOCAL GUIDE

Florence from Rome individual private tour with private guide and car

Inside the guided tour experience you can choose to visit important archaeological areas like dungeons, catacombs, ancient walls, sacred places and secret areas accessible to limited number of people. The car tour includes short walks on foot for visits of monuments and stops for taking pictures and a lunch or a coffee break. The sequence of monuments and their choice will display a historical and artistic evolution of Florence. As well as a perfect overview of ​​the different types of styles in the arts of architecture and sculpture and painting. Many monuments, private art collections, entrances to palaces are offered exclusively by RUSRIM TUSCANY CAR EXCURSIONS FROM ROME

FLORENCE PRIVATE VIP TOUR with GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

The Renaissance in Florence VIDEO by Adel Karanov Private guide in Florence

In the 19 century Florence has been celebrated as the most beautiful city in Italy. For most people Florence cames close to living up to the myth only in its first, resoundin impressions.

The pinnacle of Brunelleschi’s stupendous dome is visible over the rooftops the moment you step out of the central square, and when you reach the Piazza del Duomo the close up view is even more breathtaking, with the multicolored duomo with the marble clad baptistery. Wander from there down towards the river Arno and the attracion still hold beyond the Piazza della Signoria, site of the immense Palazzo Vecchio, the water is spanned by the shopladen medieval Ponte Vecchio, with georgeous San Minato al Monte glistening on the hill behind it.

firenze s maria del fiore

Private tours in Florence – Cattedrale S. Maria del Fiore

The italian painters part 11

VIDEO by Adel Karanov private guide in Florence

Florence - Flag
Florence flag – Il giglio

The fact is, the best Florence is to be seen indoors. Under the rule of the Medici family – the greatest patrons of Renissance Europe – Florence’s artist and thinkers were instigators of the shift from the medieval to the modern world view, and the churches, galleries and museums of this city are the places to get to grips with what they achieved. The development of the Renaissance can be plotted stage in the vast picture collection of the Uffizi, and charted in the sculpture of the Bargello, the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo and the church of Orsanmichele. Equally revelatory are the fabulous decorated chapels of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella, forerunners of such astonishing creation as Masaccio’s restored frescos at Santa Maria del carmine. Fra’ Angelico’s serene paintings in the monk’s cells at San Marco and Andrea del Sarto’s work at Santissima Annunziata.

Renaissance Florence
Renaissance – La città ideale – Rinascimento italiano

Florence is famous for its history: a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called “the Athens of the Middle Ages. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture and monuments. Due to Florence’s artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world

Botticelli VIDEO by Adel Karanov Private guide in Tuscany

  • Cappelle Medicee – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Florence individual car tour from Rome

Cappelle Medicee - Brunelleschi - Florence tour
Cappelle Medicee – Brunelleschi – Florence car tour

The Cappelle Medicee Michelangelo’s most celebrated contribution to the San Lorenzo building’s forms part of the Cappelle Medicee. After filing through the subfuse crypt where many of the Medici are actually buried, you climb into the larger of the chapels, the Cappella dei Principi (Chapel of the Princes), a gloomy, marble-plate,1 hall built as a mausoleum for Cosimo I and his descendants. Morbid and dowdy. with tank-like tombs, it epitomizes the notion that magnificence is directly proportional to expenditure. This was the most expensive building project ever financed by the family. and the Medici were still paying for it when the last of the line, Anna Maria Ludovica, joined her forebears in the basement. It could have looked even worse — the massive statues in the niches were intended to be made from semiprecious stones, like those used in the heraldic devices set into the walls. Begun in 1520, the Sagrestia Nuova was designed by Michelangelo as a tribute to, and subversion of, Brunelleschi’s Sagrestia Vecchia. Architectural connoisseurs go into raptures over the complex cornices of the alcoves, the complex relationship between those alcoves and the plane of the wall, and other such sophistication, but the lay person will be drawn to the fabulous Medici tombs, carved by Michelangelo between 1529 and 1533.’1’o the left is the tomb of Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, the grandson o’f Lorenzo it Magnifico; he is depicted as a man of thought, and his sarcophagus bears figures of Dawn and Dusk, the times of day whose ambiguities appeal to the contemplative mind. Opposite is the tomb of Lorenzo it Magnifico’s youngest son, Giuliano, Duke of Nemours; as a man of action, his character is symbolized by the clear antithesis of Day and Night. As a contemporary writer recorded, these are not true portraits: lie did not take from the Duke Lorenzo nor from the Lord Giuliano the model just as nature had drawn and composed them, but he gave them a greatness, a proportion, a dignity … which seemed to him would have brought them more praise, saying that a thousand years hence no one would be able to know that they were otherwise.. They were very nitidi otherwise, flattered by their ducal titles and genealogies as such as by these noble memorials action man Giuliano was an easy-going but feckless individual, while Lorenzo combined ineffectualness with insufferable arrogance. Both dieand unlamented — Giuliano being killed by tuberculosis, Lorenzo by aTonrib,ination of the same disease and syphilis. Their effigies were intended to face the equally grand tombs of Lorenzo it and his brother Giuliano; the only part of the project realized Michelangelo is :he preogcupied Madonna algid Child, the last image of the Madonna he ever sculpted. In 1534, four years after the Medici had returned to Florence in the unfathomably wretched form of Alessandro, Michelangelo decamped to Rome, where he stayed for the rest of his life. There are more Michelangelo drawings behind the altar which can be seen on supervised (free) trips every thirty minutes.

  • Santa Maria del Fiore – Duomo di Firenze – Florence  –Tuscany private tour

Car tour in Florence from Rome in english with private guide

Santa Maria del Fiore - Florence car excursionThe cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giotto’s Campanile. These three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy’s largest churches, and until development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed. The cathedral is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is currently Giuseppe Betori. Guide in Florence – Private tour Florence from Rome

 

Santa Croce VIDEO by Adel Karanov Private guide in Florence

  • Ponte Vecchio – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Private tour in Florence from Rome in english

firenze_pontevecchio

Ponte vecchio – Florence – Tuscany

Pontevecchio is a Medieval stone closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge over the Arno River, in Florence.
Built in the 1345 to replace an ancient wooden bridge, the Ponte Vecchio has always been loaded with shops like those now propped over the water, but the plethora od jewellers dates from 1593 when Ferdinando I evicted the butchers- stalls then in occupation. Florence had long revered the art of the goldsmith, and several of its artists were skilled in the craft: Ghiberti, Donatello, and Cellini. Guide in Florence – Car tour Florence from Rome

  • Fountain of Neptune – Piazza della Signoria – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Private car tour in Florence from Rome with private guide

Piazza della Signoria - Florence car tours

Fountain of Neptune – Florence

This work by Bartolomeo Ammannati (1563–1565) and some assistants, such as Giambologna, was commissioned on the occasion of the wedding of Francesco I de’ Medici with Johanna of Austria in 1565. The assignment had first been given to Baccio Bandinelli, who designed the model but he died before he could start working on the block of Apuan marble. The Neptune figure, whose face resembles that of Cosimo I de’ Medici, was meant to be an allusion to the dominion of the Florentines over the sea. The figure stands on a high pedestal in the middle of an octagonal fountain. The pedestal is decorated with the mythical figures of Scylla and Charybdis. The statue of Neptune is a copy made in the nineteenth century, while the original is in the National Museum. Guide in Florence – Private tour Florence from Rome

 

  • The Cenacolo di Sant’Apollonia – Florence – Tuscany private tour
    The Cenacolo di Sant'Apollonia - Florence car excursion
    The Cenacolo di Sant’Apollonia – Tuscany car tour

    The Cenacolo di Sant’Apollonia Running off the west side of Piazza San Marco, Via Arazz.ieri soon becomes Via XXVII Aprile, where the former Benedictine convent of SaneApollonia stands at no. 1. Most of the complex has now been turned into flats, but the former refectory houses one of Castagno’s masterpieces, the Last Supper (Tues—Sat 9am-1.50pm, plus same hours first, third & fifth Mon of month & second & fourth Sun of month; free). Painted around 1450, after the artist’s return from Venice, the cenacolo was white-washed out by the nuns, before being uncovered in the middle of the last century. It is perhaps the most disturbing version of the event painted in the Renaissance. Blood red is the dominant tone, and the most commanding figure is the diabolic black-bearded Judas, who sits on the near side of the table. The seething patterns in the marble pan-els behind the Apostles seem to mimic the turmoil in the mind of each, as he hears Christ’s announcement of the betrayal. Above the illusionistic recess in which the supper takes place are the sinopie of a Crucifttion,Depositi. and Resurrection by Castagno, revealed when the frescoes were taken off the wall for restoration.

Leonardo Da Vinci – Annunciazione – Uffizi – Firenze – Florence private tour by Rusrim.com Original music Adel Karanov pivate guide in Tuscany

  • Palazzo Pitti – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Private car tour in Florence from Rome in english guide

Palazzo Pitti - Florence tour

Pitti Palace – Florence

The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions.

In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon, and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919. Guide in Florence – Car tour Florence from Rome

The palazzo is now the largest museum complex in Florence. The principal palazzo block, often in a building of this design known as the corps de logis, is 32,000 square metres. It is divided into several principal galleries or museums detailed below.

Is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated on the south side of the River Arno, a short distance from the Ponte Vecchio. The core of the present palazzo dates from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. Guide in Florence – Private tour Florence from Rome

  • Santo Spirito church – Florence – Tuscany private tour
    Santo Spirito - Firenze - Toscana
    Santo Spirito church – Florence car tours from Rome

    Santo Spirito Some indication of the importance of the parish of Santo Spirito is given by the fact that when Florence was divided into four adminstrative quartieri in the fourteenth cen-tury, the entire area south of the Area was given its name. The slightly run-down square in front of Santo Spirito church, with its market stalls and cafes, encapsulates the self-sufficient character of Oltrarno, an area not hopelessly compromised by the encroachments of tourism.
    Santo Spirito church Designed by Brunelleschi as a replacement for a thirteenth-century church, Santo Spirito church (daily 8am-noon & 4-6pm; closed Wed pm) was one of his last pro-jects, and was described by Bernini as “the most beautiful church in the world”. The paper-smooth facade is just a plastering job to disguise the unfinished front, but inside it’s so perfectly proportioned that nothing could seem more artless. Yet the plan is extremely sophisticated -a Latin cross with a continuous chain of 38 chapels round the outside and a line of 35 columns running without a break round the nave, transepts and chancel. Only the Baroque baldachin, about as nicely integrated as garden gnome in a Greek temple, disrupts the harmonics. The best paintings are in the transepts: in the right there’s Filippino Lippi’s Nerli Altarpiece, and in the left a St Monica and Augustinian Nuts by Verrocchio that’s vir-tually a study in monochrome, with black-clad nuns flocking round their black-clad paragon. Also worth a peep is the sacristy, which is entered through a vestibule that opens onto the left aisle; both rooms were designed at the end of the fifteenth century by Giuliano da Sangallo. A fire in 1471 destroyed all the monastery with the exception of its refectory, now the home of the Museo Santo Spirito (Fuel-Sat 9am-2pm, Sun Sam-lpm; (4000), a one-room collection comprising an assortment of carvings, many of them Romanesque, and a huge fresco of The Crunfixion by Orcagna and his workshop.

  • David – Michelangelo

Car excursion in Florence from Rome in english with private guide

David-Michelangelo-Florence car-excursionThe statue represents the Biblical hero David, a favoured subject in the art of Florence. Originally commissioned as one of a series of statues of prophets to be positioned along the roofline of the east end of Florence Cathedral, the statue was placed instead in a public square, outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence, where it was unveiled on 8 September 1504.

Because of the nature of the hero it represented, the statue soon came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Republic of Florence, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. Private guide in Florence – Car excursion Florence from Rome

Michelangelo – David – VIDEOand  music by Adel Karanov private guide in Florence

  • Galleria dell’Accademia – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Private tour in Florence from Rome in english with guide and car

I Prigioni di Michelangelo- Florence – Tuscany

Prigioni - MichelangeloFlorence’s first academy of drawing indeed Europe’s first – was founded in the mid ssixteen century by Bronzino Ammannati and Vasari. Initially based in Santissima Annunziata, this Accademia del Disegno moved as 1164 to Via Ricasoli 66, and soon afterwards was transformed into a general arts academy, the Accademia di Belle Arti. Twenty years later the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo founded the nearby Galleria dell’Accademia (May-Sept Tues-Sat 9am-10pm, Sun 8.30am-8pm; Oct-April Tues-Sat 8.30am-6.50pm, Sun 8.30zun-1.50pm; L12,000), filling its rooms with paint-ings for the edification of the students. Later augmented with pieces from suppressed religious foundations and other sources, the Accademia has an extensive collection of paintings, especially of Florentine work of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Yet the pictures are not what draw the crowds in numbers equalled only by the Uffizi. The real attraction is Michelangelo, half a dozen of whose major sculptures are here, among them the David – symbol of the city’s republican pride and of the illimitable ambition of the Renaissance artist. Finished in 1504, when Michelangelo  was just 29, and carved from a block of marble whose shallowness posed severe difficulties, it’s an incomparable show of technical bravura. But the David is a piece of monumental public sculpture, not a gallery exhibit After being considered as an adornment far the exteri-or of the duomo, it was instead installed outside the Palazzo Vecchio, where it remained until 1873, when it was removed to the Accademia’s specially built tribune.  Close by is another unfinished work, St Matthew, which was started immediately after completion of the David as a commission from the Opera del Duomo; they actually requested a full series of the Apostles from Michelangelo, but this is the only one he ever began. The Accademia’s picture galleries are big but unexciting, with copious examples of the work of “Unknown Florentine” and “Follower of … “. The pieces likeliest to make an impact are-Trointormo’s Venus and Cupid, Botticelli’s attributed Madonna of the Sea and the painted fifteenth-century Adimari Chest, showing a Florentine wedding cere-mony in the Piazza del Duomo.

 

  • San Minato al Monte – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Car excursion in Florence from Rome in english with private guide

San Minato al Monte - Florence car toursStanding atop one of the highest points in the city. It has been described as one of the finest Romanesque structures in Tuscany and one of the most scenic churches in Italy. There is an adjoining Olivetan monastery, seen to the right of the basilica when ascending the stairs. St. Miniato was an Armenian prince serving in the Roman army under Emperor Decius. He was denounced as a Christian after becoming a hermit and was brought before the Emperor who was camped outside the gates of Florence. The Emperor ordered him to be thrown to beasts in the Amphitheatre where a panther was called upon him but refused to devour him. Beheaded in the presence of the Emperor, he is alleged to have picked up his head, crossed the Arno and walked up the hill of Mons Fiorentinus to his hermitage. A shrine was later erected at this spot and there was a chapel there by the 8th century. Construction of the present church was begun in 1013 by Bishop Alibrando and it was endowed by the Emperor Henry II. Private guide in Florence – Car excursion Florence from Rome

San Miniato al monte FIRENZE – Florence private tour with local guide- Car excursion Florence from Rome

  • San Minato al Monte – one of the most scenic churches in Italy – Tuscany private tour

Arguably the finest Romanesque structure in Tuscany, San Minato is also the oldest surviving church building in Florence after the baptistery. It recently began to show sings of its age, though, and the authorities become so concerned about the dangers of subsidence that a project was initiated to shore up the downhillside of the church and the adjoining cemetery. Then in a depressing rerun of the Piazzadella Signoria fiasco, it was discovered thata degree of financial impropriety may have been involved in awarding the contract; work has now been suspended for an indefinite period.

Tour in Florence from Rome in english with guide and car
San Minato al Monte – Florence car excursion

 

 

 

  • Loggia dei Lanzi – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Private tour in Florence from Rome in english with guide and car

Loggia dei Lanzi -Tuscany private toursThe Loggia dei Lanzi, also called the Loggia della Signoria, is a building on a corner of the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy, adjoining the Uffizi Gallery.
It consists of wide arches open to the street. The arches rest on clustered pilasters with Corinthian capitals. The wide arches appealed so much to the Florentines, that Michelangelo even proposed that they should be continued all around the Piazza della Signoria.

Loggia dei Lanzi - Firenze - Tuscany private guideThe vivacious construction of the Loggia is in stark contrast with the severe architecture of the Palazzo Vecchio. It is effectively an open-air sculpture gallery of antique and Renaissance art.
The name Loggia dei Lanzi dates back to the reign of Grand Duke Cosimo I, when it was used to house his formidable landsknechts (In Italian: “Lanzichenecchi”, corrupted to Lanzi), or German mercenary pikemen.[1] After the construction of the Uffizi at the rear of the Loggia, the Loggia’s roof was modified by Bernardo Buontalenti and became a terrace from which the Medici princes could watch ceremonies in the piazza. Guide in Florence – Car excursion Florence from Rome

  •  The Chiostro dello Scalzo – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Rome to Florence car tour in english

Chiostro dello Scalzo - Florence car tour
The Chiostro dello Scalzo – Florence car tour from Rome

The Chiostro dello Scalzo ‘In the north of San Marco, at Via Cavour 69, is Lo Seat, the home of the Brotherhood of St John, whose vows of poverty entailed walking around barefoot -scal-zo. The order was suppressed in 1785 and their monastery sold off, except for the clois-ter (Mon and Thurs 9am-lpm; free; ring the bell). This was the training ground for Andrea del Sarto, an artist venerated in the nine-teenth century as a painter with no imperfections, but now regarded with slightly less enthusiasm on account of this very smoothness. His monochrome paintings of the Cardinal Virtues and Scenes from the Life of the Baptist occupied him off and on for a decade from 1511, beginning with the Baptism, finishing with the Birth of St John. A couple of the sixteen scenes – John in the Wilderness and John meeting Christ – were executed by his pupil Franciabigio in 1518, when del Sarto was away in Paris.

  • Piazza Santissima Annunziata – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Rome to Florence  car tour in english

Piazza santissima Annunziata - Florence car tours
Piazza santissima Annunziata – Florence car tours

Nineteenth-century urban renewal schemes left many of Florence’s squares rather grim places, which makes Piazza Santissima Annunziata, with its distinctive arcades, all the more attractive a public space. It has a special importance for the city, too. Until the end of the eighteenth century the Florentine year used to begin on March 25, the Festival of the Annunciation — hence the Florentine predilection for paintings of the Annunciation, and the fashionableness of the Annunziata church, which has long been the place for society weddings. The festival is still marked by a huge fair in the piazza and the streets leading off it; later in the year, on the first weekend in September, the square is used for Tuscany’s largest crafts fair.

Galleria Uffizi private tour with local guide in Florence – Florence individual private car tour from Rome – original music by Adel karanov  RusRim.com video

  •  Palazzo Medici – Florence – Tuscany private tour

Florence  car tour from Rome in english with private guide

Palazzo Medici - Florence private tour
Palazzo Medici – Florence excursion with private guide from Rome

On the edge of the square in front of San Lorenzo stands the Palazzo Medici-M(7.1 (Mon, Tues & Thurs-Sat 9am-lpm & 3-6pm, Sun 9am-lpm), built for Cosim il Vecchio by Michelozzo in the 1440s, and the family home un61Cosimo I installed the clan in the Palazzo Vecchio. With its heavily rusticated exterior, this monolithic palaz-zo was the prototype for such houses as the Palazzo Pitti and Palazzo Stroz.zi, but in the seventeenth century it was greatly altered by its new owners, the Riccardi. Of Michelozzo’s original palazzo only the chapel remains intact, its interior covered by lively frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli, of which the centrepiece is the Journey of the Magi, painted around 1460 and recently restored to blazing colour. It shows the pageant of the Compagnia dei Magi, the most patrician of the city’s religious confraternities; their procession took place on Epiphany, with members of the Medici usually partici-pating. It’s known that several of the Medici household are featured in the procession, but putting names to these prettified faces is a problem. The man leading the cavalcade on a white horse is almost certainly Piero it Gottoso, sponsor of the fresco. Lorenzo it Magnifico, eleven years old at the time the fresco was painted, is probably the young king in the foreground, riding the grey horse detached from the rest of the procession, while his brother, Giuliano, is probably the one preceded by the black bowman. The artist himself — almost impossible to find — is in the crowd on the far- left, his red beret signed with the words “Opus Benotii” in gold. Finally, the bearded characters in among the gallery of faces might be portraits of the retinue of the Byzantine emperor John Paleologus III, who had attended the Council of Florence twenty years before the fres-co was painted. Stairs ascend to the first floor, where a display case in the lobby of the main gallery contains a Madonna and Child by Filippo Lippi, one of Cosimo de’ Medici’s more trou-blesome proteges. Even as a novice in the convent of Santa Mafia del Carmine, Filippo managed to earn himself a reputation as a drunken womanizer: in the words of Vasari, he was “so lustful that he would give anything to enjoy a woman he wanted … and if he couldn’t buy what he wanted, then he would cool his passion by painting her por-trait.” Cosimo set up a workshop for him in the Medici palace, from which he often absented himself to go chasing women. On one occasion Cosimo actually locked the artist in the studio, but Filippo escaped down a rope of bed sheets; having cajoled him Into returning, Cosimo declared that he would in future manage the painter with “affec-tion and kindness”, a policy that seems to have worked more successfully. ‘Me ceiling of the main room is covered by Luca Giordano’s fresco of The Apotheosis of the Medici, from which one can only deduce that Giordano had no sense of shame. Accompanying his father on the flight into the ether is the last male Medici, Gian Gastone (d. 1737), in reality a man so inert that he could rarely summon the energy to get out of bed in the morning.

 

  • WINE BARS IN FLORENCE – Tuscany private tour

Florence car tour from Rome with private guide

wine bar - florence car tour
winr bar in Florence – Tuscany car tour from Rome

Wine bars Cantinetta dei Verrazzano, Via dei Tavolini 18-20r. Owned by Castello dei Verrazzano, a major Chianti vineyard, this is a good spot for a drink or a slice of pizza. The glass-fronted display inside oozes with outstanding pizza, focaccia and cakes – pay at the cash-desk and eat sitting on the bench provided. Otherwise, tables beyond the white-tiled oven or in the pleasant wood-lined room to the left are perfect for an early evening glass of vino. Busy at lunch. Closed Sun & Aug. Casa del Vino, Via dell’Ariento 16r. Located just west of the Mercato Cenaale, del Vino is passed by hordes of tourists daily – yet it’s probably visited by only a handful. Patrons are mostly Florentines, who pitch up for a drink, a chat with owner Gianni Migliorini and an assault on various Mobil, crostini, and saltless Tuscan bread and salami. Closed Sun & Aug. Enoteca Baldovino, Via San Giuseppe 18r. An offshoot of the excellent Scottish-run Baldovino restaurant just across the road (see p.148), this is a stylish place to buy gastronomic goodies or drink wine at the bar or one of the tables to the rear. The small menu of sandwiches, soups and home-made cakes changes daily. Very convenient for Santa Croce. Closed Mon. Fiaschetteria, Via degli Alfani 70r, corner of Via dei Servi. The university nearby ensures that this otherwise low-key place is often heaving at lunch thne, when students pile in for the pasta-and-a-salad for around 1.15.000. There’s also a fair variety of wines by the glass. Closed Sun. Fuori Porta, Via del Monte alto Croci. If you’re climbing up to San Miniato and regret your deci-sion halfway up, console yourself at this superb wine bar-osteria. There are over 400 wines to choose.

  • Restaurats in Florence – Tuscany private tour

Florence car tour from Rome with private guide

ristorante la loggia - Florence car tours
Ristorante la loggia – Florence car tours with private guide

In gastronomic circles, Florentine cuisine is accorded as much reverence as Florentine art, a reverence encapsulated in the myth that French eating habits acquired their sophistication in the wake of Catherine de’ Medici’s marriage to the Islam Henry ll of France. In fact, Florentine food has always been characterized by modest raw materials and simple technique — beefsteak (bistecca), tripe (trippa) and liver (tegato) are typical ingredients, while grilling (alla Fiorentina) is a favoured method of pre, ration. In addition, white beans (fagioli) will feature on most menus, either on their own, garnished  with liberal quantities of local olive oil, or as the basis of such dishes as

Caffe Gilli - Florence car tours
Caffe Gilli – Florence car tours from Rome

ribollita soup. Unfussy it might be, but quality cooking doesn’t come cheap in Florence — most of the restaurants that meet with local approval cost L40,000-plus per person, wine included. Yet there are some decent low-budget places serving food that at least gives some idea of the region’s characteristic dishes, and even the simplest trattoria should offer bistetva alit; Fiorentina — though you should bear in mind that this dish is priced per hwidred grams, so your bill will be considerably higher than the figure mitten on the menu. Another thing to be aware of is that many restaurants will only serve full meals — so check the menu outside if you’re thinking of just popping in for a quick lunch-time plate of pasta. Asa very rough guideline, the cheapest places tend to be near the station, the best places on or near the main central streets, and the best mid-range restaurants tucked away in alleys on the north of the river or over in Oltrarno. 7 he restaurants below are defined by area — west and north of the immediate city centre (around the station, Santa Maria and San Lorenzo), the city centre, east of the city centre (around Santa Croce) and south of the river (Oltrarno). Prices are defined as Inexpensive (under L35,000 a head for three courses plus water, wine and cover charge), Moderate (135,000-65,000) and Expensive (over L65,000), but these are loose defini• dons, because you can keep costs down even in more expensive places by having just two courses (pasta and main), and retiring to a bar for ice cream or coffee and digestif, Remember, too, that you often needn’t buy a whole bottle of wine: ask fora half-bottle or quarter-bottle/jug of house wine (tnezza bottigliet or un guartino).

TOP TUSCANY PRIVATE TOURS

  • Florence private tour from Rome , with private guide and car (Tuscany private tour)
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Florence  car  private tours from Rome – Rusrim.com

  Florence private tours from Rome, Florence or other towns in central Italy with local licensed guides

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Individual excursions in Florence with private guide and car contacts:

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

Private local guides in Rome Vatican Florence Tuscany Umbria Abruzzo Campania with CAR

Adel Karanov – Contacts
+39 389 5975 184   info@rusrim.com +39 329 448 3644 

Private tours in English, French, Bulgarian, Russian and Italian

Adel Karanov, private art guide with car in Rome, Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo is a famous music composer in the ballet and fashion sector.

Adel Karanov touristic local art guide with car (6 years Tour Guide Experience – Degree in music composition renaissance, baroque, electronic music and classic dance) Guide in Rome, Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Campania is a famous music composer in the ballet and fashion sector in Italy, Tunisia and UK. Work in 5 languages English, Fench, Bulgarian, Russian and Italian.

адел каранов гид в рим

adel karanov guide in romeEUK 047

  1. Modern art in Slovak institute in Rome
  2. National Gallery of modern art in Rome – Giuseppe Verdi by Giovanni Boldini

Ambient music by Adel Karanov – Video by Y. Pavlov 2019

Excursions in: Rome, Tivoli, Roman castles, Viterbo, Lakes and castles in central Italy, Florence, Siena and other towns in Tuscany and Umbria

Special entrance in the secret archaeological sites in Rome

I have Italian, bulgarian and eu touristic guide licence. I offer the visit of principal and rare monuments – places with Raffaello Michelangelo and I like to play the piano in the panoramical terace at Albano lake and to meet my guest with important italian people like the princes orner of the italian palazzi galleries and wine and bio food 200y old shops and restaurant around Rome,  Tuscany, Abruzzo, Umbria and Campania.

хотел Ритц в Рим

Private guide with licence in Italy, Rome, the Vatican, Florence – Tuscany, Umbria, Naples and Abruzzo. Guide with car for small groups.

Touristic guide licenses – Rome – Vatican  – Italy – Bulgaria – Europenian Union

The Italian ministery of tourism and culture – Italian guide licence for all Italy

http://www.beniculturali.it/mibac/multimedia/MiBAC/documents/1453464907948_karanov.pdf

Licensed guide Vatican, Rome and all Italy

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Ministery of tourism Republic of Bulgaria

https://goo.gl/vQNnhM

Rome private guide

EU touristic guide licence – Union of Bulgarian tourist guides

http://www.bulguide.bg/eng/member.php?id=279

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Best individual private tours in central Italy with Adel Karanov guide Departure excursions from Rome

Rome with driver guide – English  – French – Bulgarian – Russian

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Discovering the secret Italy with Adel Karanov private excursions in Rome, Lazio and Tuscany

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  1. Forte piano 1722 Bartolomeo Cristofori The inventer of the piano. Original in the in the Museo Nazionale degli strumenti musicali in Rome
  2. Galleria Spada 1540 with the perspective gallery by Francesco Borromini

 

palazzo colonna roma venerefirma03 365

Palazzo Colonna Roma individual tour – The private residence of the pope and princess Colonna and Gallery

 

excurions tivoli rusrimrome to tivoli tourVilla D este fontana centrale

Tivoli excursion from Rome:  Villa Adriana, Villa Gregoriana and Villa D’Este

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  1. The Biblioteca Casanatense library in Rome and the convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva
  2. Caravaggio – Galleria Borghese individual tour in english

 

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Centrale Montemartini Roma – The best roman and greek collection in the electrical central Acea – Classic collection in modern ambiance from the Musei Capitolini di Roma

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The Churches, fountains and secret monuments of Rome – individual excursion in english with guide and car

Piazza del campo Sienafirenze s maria del fiore20150923_153707

Tuscany individual tour from Rome with guide and car
  1. Siena from Rome excursions in english with private guide
  2. Florence tour from Rome including The Uffizi museum
  3. Capalbio excursion with private guide and car from Rome
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  1. Bagnoregio The magic etruscan secret town with 12 abitants in central Italy
  2. Temples and churches around the Bolsena lake. Tours in english with private guide
  3. Bolsena lake The bigest lake in Europe. Tours from Rome in english with private guide
Adel Karanov art guide and music composer

Specialized in baroque  and electronic music has contributed to various artistic projects in Italy, Tunis and Bulgaria. He is live electronic music performer and expert of classic and contemporary arts. Born in 1980 in Bulgaria, the artist moved to Italy at the age of 10. In Rome his talent was fostered by studying in the first place ballet dance in the Academy of Dance in Rome and in the second place composition in the Conservatoir of Rome and Classic School of Arts.

music studio karanovjtc price

  1. Music studio
  2. International festival of Theatre and modern arts JTC (Tunis) and won the first prize in 2007
GUCCI: Viedo with Original soft electronic music by A. Karanov

Gucci MariaPia & Adel Karanov –  The lady ho made the Italian fahion history – Photo Rome 2016
QFR 1000
Gucci MariaPia & Adel Karanov Gucci home Rome 2016QFR 1014

The two styles Karanov employs in composition include a cultured for contemporary dance, art exhibitions, films and festivals and an entertaining (soft, acousmatic, atmospheric, break, minimal house) for fashion shows, radio programmes, sound tracks and club music. By means of personalized sounds and effects like spacilization of sound and involutions of signal controls created with synth and invented by him instruments.

Tour in the MACRO Museum with Adel Karanov

Original music and dance performance by ATON Dino Verga Danza Rome Italy In the photo Luca Russo perform an contemporary dance composition by Dino Verga – Best Cunningham coreographer in Italy Music Adel Karanov

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  1. Regina Baglioni hotel in Rome – Harp and piano performance
  2. Niki de Saint Phalle gardens museum in Capalbio Tuscany daily excursion
  3. Contemporary arts Sleepin Head by Igor Mitoraj Canary Wharf

Arpa Hotel Baglioni Roma20150923_153748modern art

Currently living in Rome, Adel distributes original electonic music in more than 60 countries in 300 online music stores such as iTunes, ExLibris.ch In 2006 the composer won a tender for music accompaniment of a Gucci fashion advertisiment. In 2007 and 2009 Adel Karanov took part in the international festival of Theatre and modern arts JTC (Tunis) and won the first prize in 2007. In November, 2009, his track LE VENT DE DESERT and biography were included into the Italian edition of the book about the best Italian composers of `XX (Scelsi, Berlinguer, Fabriciani) ENCHANTMENT OF MANY WORLDS accompanied by a CD available on the market in Italy and in the rest of Europe in the near future.

arte classicaadel karanov istituto di cultura slovacco Roma

VIDEO of The TOP CENTRAL ART TOWNS and MONUMENTS in ITALYwith original soft music by Adel Karanov: ROME, TIVOLI, ROMAN CASTLES, VITERBO, ORVIETO (Umbria), AREZZO (Umbria), SIENA, FLORENCE, CHIANTI, ARGENTARIO (Tuscany), AMALFI and POMPEII (Campania)

Adel has participated in various artistic projects.

MUSIC GENERES:

  • AVANTGUARDE:
    Different style music for contemporary dance company and video art installation.
  • CLUB MUSIC:
    Breakbeat
    Electro house
    House Minimal Techno
    Trance
    IDM and Soft electronic music
    Soft fashion styles
  • SOUNDTRACKs:
    Tonal classic instrumental and ethnic (arabic and asian music)

Adel Karanov is the author of:

SOUNDTRACKS

2008 – “ROMA” Direction Giorgio DeFinis, Production SD Cinematografica
2007 – “Megacity diaries, Mumbai” Direction Giorgio DeFinis, Production SD Cinematografica
2007 – “GUCCI web spots 2007” Filmaster production www.gucci.com/fr/video/indy-bag/
2005 – “ROMA IN CORTO” Direction Giovanni Caloro
2005 – “LE 3 BANANE” Direction Giovanni Caloro
2005 – “YARRIYA” Direction Giovanni Caloro
2005 – “WHISPERS + VISIONS” Direction Giovanni Caloro

MUSIC FOR CONTEMPORARY DANCE COMPANY

2011 Colorate revolutions by Paolo Santilli – Balletto di Roma

2006 – “CORPO AVI” video Giovanni Caloro, Choreography Luca Russo, videodance Il Coreografo Elettronico Festival
2006 – “DUENDE” Choreography Mauro Astolfi, Spellbound Dance Company
2006 – “THE LAST BEAT” Choreography Vanessa Tamburi, live video Andrea Paciotto (Fucina.off festival Spoleto 2006)
2005 – “SHOWERTIME” Choreography Luca Russo (Aton-Dino Verga Danza)
2005 – “GAP” Choreography Paolo Santilli, video Giovanni Caloro videodance
2004 – “CORPO .jpg” Choreography Luca Russo, video Giovanni Caloro (Aton-Dino Verga Danza) Journes Theatrales de Carthage 2005

LIVE ELECTRONIC MUSIC CONCERTS

2007 – Live electronic music organised by 13me Journées Théâtrales de Carthage et l’Institut Supérieur de Musique de Tunis

2007 – He has performed as live electronic music at the Embassy of the Slovak Republic in Rome
2007 – Eto` club Rome
2006 – Linux club Rome
2006 – Sotto sotto club Rome

HONORS

2007 december, Prize winner at the International Festival of Theatre “13me Journées Théâtrales de Carthage-2007″, held in Tunis and supported by the Tunisian Ministry of Culture.

TV and RADIO

2015 sound design for the Vatican radio programs

2008 – Vatican Radio music section, Musica Acusmatica directed by Adel Karanov

2007 december – Rai Italian National TV Participation
interviews with Adel Karanov, Lidiya Svirska, Luca Vittucci in the innovative and educational Italian RaiTV programme ” Art News” made by Paola Orlandini and Luigi Ceccarelli, about contemporary art, research and tecnology.
(from min.19.30.to min.21.40.)

2007 – Vatican Radio music section DIAPASON directed by Stefano Corato
2006 – Vatican Radio Bulgarian section directed by Dimitar Gancev

Rome private car tours VIDEO

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Dance
1992-2000 -National Academy of Dance and Classic Choreutic High school, both in Rome.
Teachers: M. Tuccio Rigano pas de deux et repertoir, M. Gloria Giordano – ancient dances, M. Massimo Coen and M. Mauro Baggella – music theory, Renato Bossa – music history M. Francesca Falcone – dance theory.Dance stage: M. Margherita Traianova. M. Valia Verbeva and M. Vera Kirova.

Music
1998-2002 Conservatory of Rome “S. Cecilia” “Experimental Course in Composition”
M. Roberto Pacella, M. Gabriele Arrigo, M. Anna Maria DeChiara, M. Claudio Dall’albero.

2004 – Conservatory “Ottorino Respighi” of Latina
M. Paolo Rotili, M Alberto Meoli, M. Maurizio Furlani, M. Mariantonietta Caroprese.
Diploma in composition at the Conservatory “Ottorino Respighi” in 2004.

BALLET PERFORMANCES

10/07/2009 ITALY
“THE LAST BEAT”
FLUSSO DANCE PROJECT
Choreography Vanessa Tamburi
Music Adel Karanov
live video Andrea Paciotto
RASSEGNA INVITO ALLA DANZA ROMA
Teatro Villa Pamphilj

07/02/2009 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Insallation video Giovanni Caloro
ROMA – Teatro Quarticciolo

01/08/2008 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Insallation video Giovanni Caloro
Vignale FONDAZIONE TEATRO NUOVO
30° Festival internazionale di Danza e Arti Integrate
www.vignaledanza.com/programma.htm

“DUENDE”
Spellbound Dance Company
Choreography Mauro Astolfi
Music Adel Karanov
23/01/2007 Siena
12/11/2006 Palermo
13/07/2006 Paestum
07/07/2006 Chioggia
28/06/2006 Firenze
28/05/2006 Saronno, Teatro Giuditta Pasta
22/05/2006 Teramo, Teatro Comunale
20/05/2006 Aquila, Teatro San Filippo
17/05/2006 Castiglioncello, Castello Pasquini

11,12,13/05/2005 ITALY
“CORPO AVI”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Palazzo delle arti Napoli
FESTIVAL INTERNAZIONALE
“Il coreografo elettronico”

30/03/2006 ITALY
“DUENDE”
Spellbound Dance Company
Choreography Mauro Astolfi
Music Adel Karanov
Caserta, Teatro Comunale

23/03/2006 ITALY
“DUENDE”
Spellbound Dance Company
Choreography Mauro Astolfi
Music Adel Karanov
Pisa, Teatro Verdi
www.teatrodipisa.pi.it

25-26/02/2006 ITALY
“THE LAST BEAT”
OFFUCINA ECLECTIC ARTS
Choreography Vanessa Tamburi
Music Adel Karanov
live video Andrea Paciotto
FUCINA.OFF FESTIVAL SPOLETO OPERA
Teatro Caio Melisso
www.offucina.com

29-3/12/2005 TUNIS
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
Insallation video Giovanni Caloro
Journées Théâtrales de Carthage
أيام قرطاج المسرحية

19-21/07/2005 ITALY
“CORPO JPG”
ATON Dino Verga Danza
Choreography Luca Russo
Music Adel Karanov
video insallation Giovanni Caloro
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  •  Микеланджело ВатиканаКапела Систина РусримThe Belvedere Garden The idea of creating the Vatican Museums came about at the beginning of the Ili”‘ century when Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere became Pope, taking the name Julius II (1503-1513), and had important classical stat-ues such as the .Ipollo and the Laocoon transferred to the Vatican   anti   placed   in  the   Belvedere   Palace   garden,   which   had   been

Ватикана папски апартаменти transformed into a courtyard. The courtyard was designed by Donato Bramante, Nvho had drawn in-spiration from literary descriptions and the remains of villas and ancient palaces to recreate a natwal  environment wills the ancient

Vatican private tour VIDEO – Original music by Adel Karanow guide in the Vatican city

 

Vaticano Rusrimmarble stat-ues placed amongst orange, lemon, myrtle and has trees accompanied by a continuous flow of water from Ilse fountains. The classical statues were harmoniously positioned along the walls of Use courtyard in niches and in the centre as part of the fountain. This environment edified mid delighted the men of letters and assists who cause to Rome as guests of the Pope to study classical antiquities. The

raffaelloBelvedere Palace was built in the 15’h century for Innocent VIII (Cybo. 1-184-1492) as a papal summer residence. The view over the Ro-man countryside must have been spectacular. though it has now been replaced Its the sight of the city’s Prati and Trionfale areas. For the most part the original architecture has been retained. although Ilse Palace was altered in the 18th century. IVe can still reconstruct its original ap-pearance thanks to a series of drawings, engravings, maps and eleva-tions from the le and 17″‘ centuries. The main facade was dominated by a loggia with two avant-corps at the far ends and a craws of merlons running all the way around building. The Palace was actually part of a much huger complex. as this engrav-ing by Mario Cartaro clearly shaves. It can be seen on Ilse right, to Ilse north, with Ilse Garden holding Julius II’s statuses and its view over the roman cOuntr•side. On the opposite side to use south we cars sec the complex of the Papal Palace, first built by order of Pope Nicholas III  (Orsini. 1277-1280) who look into consideration the potential of the Vatican in becoming the fixed papal residence, fully aware of the importance of living in proximity to Peter’s tomb. The former papal residence was the Lateran and it was only after the Avignon Exile (1300-1377) that the Pope lived permanently at the Vatican. This illustration also Shows the connecting courtyard designed by Donato Bramante. Bramante and Ain. 11 were able to come to it unique understanding as their inten-tions converged to satisfy one in his search for a universal architectural language and the other in his plan to recover the splendour of ancient Rome. brought to life again in a Christian setting. lit this case Bramante’s study and reintroduction of classical architecture in the expression of a universal language Nvas operative in Julius Is plans to reorganise the Papal Palace, Among the various renovation projects. the architect designed the Belvedere Courtyard to link the summer Palace , ith the …

Vatican museum private tour Short VIDEO

  •  The tournament and the joust In the joust two knights at a time with their lances at resc galloped towards each other trying to unseat their opponent. The tournament on the other hand. was a simulated battle between two groups of knights. each fighting to overpower the other and become manners of the battlefield. These tests originated in France and appeared in Italy from the l2‘” century onwards.The tournaments were held to celebrate victories, peace, alliances. marriages, religious festivals and important political events. Originally they hardly differed from real battles to the point where. at the end of the day. it was not unusual for many participants to suffer injuries or even death. Over time. and after numerous outcries. the games became less and less violent and took on the form of grand festivals in which participants used blunted weapons without their sharp points or covered them with a shield. It was not until the l7″‘ century, however. that the displays definitively shed their primitive nature involving the representation of a battle and became contests of grace and agility. often choreographed with music. Besides the sculptm‘es in the niches other statues were reused as ornaments for the fountains. Luder the papacy of Leo X (Medici, 1515-1521). Julius ll’s successor. a new discovery was added to the pontifical collection: the colossal statues of the Nile and the Tiber. These were placed in the centre of the courtyard among the orange trees on high plinths with the Medici coat of arms. the Nile with its back to the Laocoon and the Tiber opposite. Durhig Statua del nilo e Tevere - Vatican individual tourJulius II’s reign two other statues were added and used as fountains. ‘I”he-iriadnc was positioned in the corner of the courtyard above a sarcophagus held up by dolphins which served as a basin, and an ancient statue of a river thought to he the ‘Ii’gris or the Arno was placed in the niche at the other end of the same wall, it too being reduced to a fountain on a sarcophagus supported by turtles. The last additions were the world famous Torso. particularly admired by Michelangelo who declared himself to be a ‘disciple of the Belvedere Torso’, placed near the fragment of Hercules and Antaeus anti a statue identified as Henncs standing in the niche next to the Palace’s entrance. The walls of the. courtyard also held marble masks which were thought to have come from the Pantheon. This collection of sculptures transformed the Vatican into an ideal Parnassus – the hill of the Muses which inspired the creative process in all its forms – the very one which Raphael painted at aromid the same time on one of the walls of Julius 11’s apartment on the third floor of the Papal Palace with the intention of recapturing and studying the work of classical civilisations, a practice which was considered to be very important during the Renaissance. The testimony of an anonymous ambassador from the Veneto region. who saw the Belvedere Garden when he made his visit of allegiance to the new Pope Adrian VI (Florensz, 1522—1525). is very effective in providing a description of the area. He recounts a beautiful garden with lush grass. laurds. a magnificent orange tree and more particularly the ancient statues of the Tiber and the Nile which gushed with water. the Apollo. the Lam-muand finally the exquisite l‘tmus.

 

Michelangelo – Sistine chapel – Private tour

  • What is a museum? According to the International Council of Museums (ICoM)”a museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its develop-ment, open to the public. which acquires, conserves, researches, communi-cates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment.” Why a museum? Every time we enter a museum and walk through the various rooms we make an ideal journey, a sort of itinerary of the soul which allows us to re-turn to
    The vatican museum - tour with guide
    Vatican museums – Private tours Rome and Vatican

    the origins of Man and consequently to piece together the collec-tive identity of the whole of humanity on its voyage through history. During this eternally unique and fascinating journey, however, we must keep in mind that we are faced with a fragmented situation. incomplete in the partial and fragmented display of each work of art and of each object which can never-theless restore traces of truth to us, like the fragments of a mirror. The origin of the word Where does the word “museum” come from? The term has ancient Greek origins stemming from the noun museion or rather “temple, shrine, or seat of the Muses” — the goddesses who, according to ancient mythology, in-spired creative thought in all its shapes and forrns.They were the supreme inspirers of Man’s intellectual activities such as poetry, oratory, music, histo-ry, mathematics and astronomy. Originally the seat of the Muses was prob-ably meant to be on a hill or in a wood and not in a building. The noun museion. referring to a building, was used to indicate the Great Museum ofAlexandria in Egypt, a religious institution in which study and re-search were placed under the protection of the Muses.This museum was built in the century sc and included lodgings for the academic commu-nity of men of letters and scientists, rooms and porticoes for reading, study-ing and conversing, various works of art and more especially the great cul-tural institution of the famous library. Both these institutions were founded on the initiative of the ruling Ptolemy dynasty and represented a cultural reference point for the whole of the Mediterranean at the time, contain-ing specially dedicated areas and a building for teaching and research under the auspices of the Muses. Plato and Aristotle also organised their schools, the Academy and the Lyceum respectively, as places conceived for the cult of the Muses. The birth of the museum as an institution The museum as an institution has deeply-rooted and distant origins and was founded thanks to our inclination for gathering together and collecting all kinds of objects at risk of being damaged over time. The first collections of art had religious connotations both in ancient Egypt and in Greece, for example the objects of worship in the temples and grave goods. In Roman times the practice of secular collecting arose after great military conquests and the arrival of the spoils of war in Rome. Noble hous-es and villas, temples and porticoes were filled with works of art, especial-ly of Greek origin. This is supported by historical sources and by archaeo-logical findings. Pliny, for example. in his Naturalis Historia lists a series of Greek statues and paintings in the so-called Portico of Octavio, and findings at Pompeii and Herculaneum like the series of bronze portrait sculptures of philosophers in the library of the Pisoni family villa. In the Middle Ages the Church, and therefore all places of worship, became the favoured destination for commissions and collections of works of art as educational and religious [ messages could be communicated through them. for example the frescoes or the mosaics depicting the episodes of the Old and New Testaments or the lives of saints along the churches’ naves, which were aimed at bringing wor-shippers and pilgrims closer to the great themes of faith (Bibb° pauperum, the [ Bible of the Poor) using a simple and immediate means of communication. In the 15. century and then during the Renaissance with the renewed in-terest in the study of classical antiquity, the spread of humanistic culture j and the reconsideration of works of art from an independent aesthetical Ipoint of view, there was not a court in Italy which did not also become a home for ancient works of art and a source of commissions for contempo-rary craftsmen. Milan. Mantua, Ferrara. Urbino and Florence came to house i splendid collections and the very same artists and humanists became coi-1 lectors. With Humanism collecting became a method of investigation and the collector became a philosopher, a theologian who would search for the order of the world in his collections. Collections began to blossom with naturalta,artificialia and mirabilia which included antiquities (Egyptian. Greek. Roman and Christian), gems, coins. marble objects, scientific and musical in-, struments, portraits of illustrious men, fossils, minerals, coral, various other objects (talismans. lamps, ethnographic findings from far away continents, stones), rare animals (crocodiles. shells) and plants (exotic fruits). Essential-ly these collections did not just include man-made objects (artificialia), they also included natural discoveries (naturalia) and items which excited admi-ration (mirabilia). For the humanists from Petrarch and Poggio Bracdohni to Retro Bembo at the beginning of the 16°’ century. a paradigm of all this was

  • The Vatican Museums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
    Papa - Giulio II - Vaticano
    Papa Giulio II – Musei Vaticani

    During the Counter-Reformation in the middle of the 16‘” century the tradition of collecting was opposed and expurgaled with harsh words; in reference to the ancient sculptures collected in the Vatican. St. Pius V (Ghislieri, 1566-1572) declared: ‘sunt idola profana’ (‘these are profane idols“). F urlherrnore, the great new construction site of St. Peter‘s required unprecedented effort and attention so the Popes of the l7m century had to concentrate on the colossal project. indirectly imposing athe “study”, a place where books joined all the various antiquities constitut-ing a local variation on the European model of the so-called “Wunderkam-mer” or “cabinets of curiosities”, embryos of the Museum as we recognise it today, a laboratory of history and knowledge of the world. The penetration of Humanism in Rome was at the root of the Papal col-lections and their usage by scholars and artists, as well as the collections on display in the large houses and courtyards of the great families. These collections revealed refined cultural awareness and they became tools for orchestrating agendas and political plans. Julius II’s plans for the statue gar-den, for example, can be interpreted in this light. He gathered together sculptures which called to mind the protagonists of the Trojan War such as the Laocoon, the Apollo and the Venus Felix reminiscent of Aphrodite, and the group of Hercules and Telephus reminiscent of Aeneas with his son Ascanius. The Pope wanted to create a real Virgilian theme which would link the stat-ues together to communicate a precisely-conceived political agenda. Just as Virgil celebrated the origins of Rome through the Trojan War and Aeneus’ adventures in the Aeneid in accordance with Augustus’ political agenda to exalt the city’s centrality and the imperial family, Julius II used his “Virgilian” statues and played on his own name lulius  put himself in the direct line of the Gens liulia, Caesar and Augustus’ family, with the aim of heralding a new golden age for recently-established Christian Rome. There was also a public dimension to collecting in Rome which became more marked after Sixtus IV’s (della Rover, 1471-1481) “dbnation” CO the Roman people of large bronzes with great symbolic value.They were trans-ported from the Lateran CO Capitoline Hill and became the nucleus of the future Capitoline Museums. However, it was during the 18 century. the Age of Enlightenment, that the modern concept of the Museum took shape, that is to say a public institu-tion open to everyone aiming to safeguard cultural heritage and promote its understanding.This institution was therefore a creature of the Enlight-enment in Europe; it was during this era that an architectural space was designed for the first time to give a universally recognisable form to the museums. Previously, works of are had been simple decorative elements in the large houses and villas which received them. Now a new awareness arose which underlined the importance of making the cultural heritage formerly restricted to the enjoyment of a limited and elite circle acces-sible to everyone. It also exposed the necessity of designing a building, a home for the works to be collected; a container conceived especially for its contents.This century, therefore, witnessed the birth of the great mu-seums and after various expansion works and changes to the organisation of the collections. Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-1740) decreed the opening of the Capitoline Museums.

 

  • Bramante’s Staircase (Scala del Bramante) A little further on, alter passing
    scala del Bramante - Vatican museum individual excursion
    Scala del Bramante Vatican private tour

    Iltrough a small vestibule, we come to Rramante’s Staircase, a spiral flight of stairs enhanced by a gran-ite colonnade made for Julius II (della Rovere, 1503-1513). The graded ramp was built as one of the entrances to the Palace and its structure with wide and low steps made it possible to go up and down easily even on horseback. It is characterised by an elegant colonnade which displays the three architectural orders, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, changing ac-cording to the level you are on as you move upwards from the bottom.

 

  • Octagonal Courtyard (Cortile Ottagonale) Moving back, we come to the Octagonal Courtyard, the heart and ini-tial location of the Vatic. Niuseunts.
    Octagonal Courtyard - vatican individual tour
    Octagonal CourtyardVatican museum tour

    Originally there was a square, or-ange tree garden decorated with statues Julius If had built Icy Bramante. The Apollo, the Laocoon and the Izernis Felix were installed in the three cappelleile (small shrines) along the Courtyard’s main wall, the one the Pope’s guests would see in front of them as they arrited in the garden front Rratnante’s Staircase. In the le century Clement XIV ordered the open area to be closed off by an octagonal portico designed by Simonetti, giving the Courtyard its current appearance. The shorter sides are called Cabinets (Gabinetti), and here we eats admire the most important statues adorning Julius II’s ancient courtyard.

 

  • The statuary The statues and their origins When we admire masterpieces of classical statuary we have to remember that we are standing before Roman copies of Greek statues. Statues, in Greece. were linked to politics and religion so we must try to imagine there outdoors. in temples, shrines. the Agora. libraries, theatres. gymnasia and as ornaments on tombs. The military campaigns conducted by the Romans in the Mediterranean af-forded various opportunities of coming into direct contact with the thriv-ing centres of Greek civilisation and the inevitable result was that countless Greek works of art — the spoils of war — began to flow into Rome.The first objects came from Syracuse, which was seized and sacked in 212 BC by Gen-eral Marcus Marcellus.According to the historian Livy the conquest of Syra-cuse was ‘the very beginning of enthusiasm for Greek works of are (XXV), and this was corroborated in Marcellus’ biography, written by the Greek Plutarch, in which we can read that the General ‘to illustrate his triumph. and adorn the city, carried away with him a great number of the most beautiful ornaments of Syracuse. For, before that. Rome neither had, nor had seen. any of those fine and exquisite rarities: nor was any pleasure taken in graceful and elegant pieces of workmanship: (Life of Marcellus, 21). Seeing as the origi-nals did not satisfy demand, Roman copies began to be made of the Greek originals and entire schools transferred their activities to Rome to work for the buyers.This became one of the main factors in facilitating the mania for private collecting reflecting Catholic tastes which, far from appreciating the shapes and forms of Greek art, concentrated on making the works fit in with their architectural setting. The materials The materials chosen so make the statues were extremely diverse: wood. terracotta, bronze, limestone, and marble with a preference for the white varieties, porphyry and granite. The favoured materials were usually the durable ones. partly due to the need to withstand outdoor conditions and atmospheric agents. For the same reasons. as well as for aesthetics. the statues’ surfaces were painted. also partly to mitigate the violent effects of the light. There was a progressive transition from full to partial polychromy, fache-tated by the artists’ discovery of the marble’s beauty. However, the use of colour on the statues never completely disappeared. just as the artists also continued to spread a protective layer of wax on them. Distinctive colours were also used on the bronzes as well as embellish-ments in enamel. ivory and mother of pearl for the natural rendering of the eyes and mouth. Unfortunately most of the Greek statues in bronze have been lost as they were melted down in later eras. so the existence of origi-nals is extremely rare and the result of fortuitous circumstances. Luckily the Roman copies in marble from the original Greek bronzes have been mostly well preserved and handed down to us intact.Thanks to these statues, and by studying and comparing various copies of the same model in reliefs, on coins and in glyptics. we can laboriously trace back to the archetypal form of the Greek original. How can a Roman marble copy be told apart from a Greek bronze original? The presence of supports reveals the works true origins as metal has more elasticity than stone and does not break as easily.The protruding parts of a the “study”, a place where books joined all the various antiquities constitut-ing a local variation on the European model of the so-called “Wunderkam-mer” or “cabinets of curiosities”, embryos of the Museum as we recognise it today, a laboratory of history and knowledge of the world. The penetration of Humanism in Rome was at the root of the Papal collections and their usage by scholars and artists, as well as the collections on display in the large houses and courtyards of the great families. These collections revealed refined cultural awareness and they became tools for orchestrating agendas and political plans. Julius ll’s plans for the statue gar-den, for example, can be interpreted in this light. He gathered together sculptures which called to mind the protagonists of the Trojan War such as the Laocoon, the Apollo and the Venus Felix reminiscent of Aphrodite, and the group of Hercules and Telephus reminiscent of Aeneas with his son Ascanius. The Pope wanted to create a real Virgilian theme which would link the stat-ues together to communicate a precisely-conceived political agenda. Just as Virgil celebrated the origins of Rome through the Trojan War and Aeneus’ adventures in the Aeneid in accordance with Augustus’ political agenda to exalt the city’s centrality and the imperial family, Julius II used his “Virgilian” statues and played on his own name lulius  put himself in the direct line of the Gens liulia, Caesar and Augustus’ family, with the aim of heralding a new golden age for recently-established Christian Rome. There was also a public dimension to collecting in Rome which became more marked after Sixtus IV’s (della Rovere, 1471-1481)  the Roman people of large bronzes with great symbolic value. They were transported from the Lateran  Capitoline Hill and became the nucleus of the future Capitoline Museums. However, it was during the 18 century. the Age of Enlightenment, that the modern concept of the Museum took shape, that is to say a public institu-tion open to everyone aiming to safeguard cultural heritage and promote its understanding.This institution was therefore a creature of the Enlight-enment in Europe; it was during this era that an architectural space was designed for the first time to give a universally recognisable form to the museums. Previously, works of are had been simple decorative elements in the large houses and villas which received them. Now a new awareness arose which underlined the importance of making the cultural heritage formerly restricted to the enjoyment of a limited and elite circle acces-sible to everyone. It also exposed the necessity of designing a building, a home for the works to be collected; a container conceived especially for its contents.This century, therefore, witnessed the birth of the great mu-seums and after various expansion works and changes to the organisation of the collections. Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-1740) decreed the opening of the Capitoline Museums.  I metal statue do not need co be supported while sculptures in stone need  help to stop these parts from cracking away from the, main structure. It goes without saying that artists who used bronze had almost unlimited free-dom in portraying moving or stretched out figures. The revolutionary new developments in statuary: the study of anatomy and naturalise The oriental influence on early Greek statuary is clear. The workmanship, the use of proportion and the poses of the figures are taken from Egypt (which boasted a long tradidon in large-scale sculpture) both for the stat-ues depicted standing and seated as well as those in motion. Soon, however, Greek statuary broke away from the earlier traditions and chose a new di-rection. Egyptian artists portrayed objects irrespective of the, position in space following a two-dimensional concept of reality.The unvarying aspects in their execution were therefore the front-facing position of the statues whether seated or standing, their great size (Egyptian statues were colos-sal). their lack of autonomy from the architecture (the statue could be con-fused with an architectural element in place of a pillar or column), the lack of anatomical detail and study of a portrait and the preference for durable materials. In ancient Egypt reality was represented as it was thought to be and not how a was actually perceived by the eye. Communicating an idea was considered to be the most important thing, for example the illustration of religious and cosmic principles, rites and cults and the celebration of the Pharaoh’s divinity. In the ancient world traditions generally carried great weight and resistance to innovation was strong, especially in Egypt where some conventions re-mained practically the same for millennia.The open spirit of the Greeks and thee- readiness for research and change lessened these traits and although they recognised she value of traditions. followed a code of expression and a system of binding rules, Greek artists made constant advances, moving away from abstraction and drawing nearer to naturalism; statues made their first steps into three-dimensional space. Soon after, Greek sculptors had to deal with problems linked to the representation of the body in motion, its twists and turns. and they realised that it did not necessarily have to stand on the soles of the feet, just as it did not have to face forward. Another great innovation was the study of anatomy with Man being the absolute centre of attention of Greek artists. The first step in this direc-liOn was the need to make statues life-size instead of the colossi of Egyp-‘ descent. and this led to more attention being given to anatomical detail sbrough the careful observation of still and moving bodies: athletes became ibe pre-eminent source of inspiration. Consequently, attention to anatomi-tai detail manifested itself in a love for the human body. its harmony, beauty ingourThis led the artists, right up the Hellenistic era, to avoid poi-‘saying the body’s declining forms like illness and old age whenever possible. preferred to depict subjects like gods, heroes. illustrious men, athletes the deceased, whose likenesses were destined for temples. shrines, por-ticoes and funerary monuments. Artists In the ancient world wrests in the ancient world were considered mostly to be artisans and in the Greek world the distinction was also very subtle.Technical ability was so im-portant for the Greeks that the expression “well made” was the highest combent an artisan, or a technites, could receive.Art was therefore considered so be an ability and the concept of original and independent artistic creation rernained beyond ancient ways of thinking.

 

  • Apollo Cabinet (Gabinetto dell’Apollo) Around the portico of Ihe courtyard in a clockwise direction we come the Apollo Cabinet.  Statue of Apollo “del Belvedere”
    Apollo - Vatican museum private tour
    Apollo – Vatican individual tour

    was statue was brought to the Vatican by Julius II and placed in one of the niches around the courtyard. It was admired by Winclvelmann Goethe and at an even earlier time by Michelangelo. It is a Roman copy the Hadrian era (II century Ad) or a bronze original by the sculpture – Leochares (IV century BC) which was displayed in the Agora of Athens. It depicts Apollo, who almost seems to appear before the viewer as a sudden apparition in all his divine magnificence. According to ancient mythology  Apollo, the god of music and poetry, was represented on the mytical mountain of Parnassus to preside over the Muses, who were tought by the ancients to inspire all the foremost intellectual activities of Man. In this regard, Raphael’s representation of Parnassus in Julius Its study on the second floor of the Papal Palace is eNtraordinary. Apollo was also a warrior god, capable of bringing about a quick death by striking with his bow anal arrow. In Homer’s Iliad, for example, he fights for the ‘firojans against the Greeks. The statue shows the god (tressed as an archer. In his left hand he holds the bow and in Isis right he grasps the arrow he has just drawn from the quiver. The god’s gaze is magnificent as he looks towards an undefined and faraway point in the distance. He has a chlamys, a sort of mantle, thrown over his how-arm and there is a snake on the tree trunk reminiscent of his victory at Delphi over Pythons, Gala’s monstrous serpent child. The tripod is also well-known as one the emblems of Apollo, also a god of divination, on which Pythia, a sort priestess, sat to (lel iVer her prophecies. A solemn feast was held at Delp to commemorate Python’s death and Apollo’s purification. Although this statue is a copy it displays all the originality and the achiev ments of Greek sculptors in the 4° century BC giving us the chance to a preciate Use statue’s movement in three dimensional spare.

 

  • South porticoStatue of Rivers (known as Tigris or Arno) and sarcophagus with Ainazonomachy Julius II’s “garden” held a series of statues used as parts of fountains as is the ease of this statue of Rivers. This fluvial statue is a Roman copy from the Hadrian era (2nd century AD) of a Greek prototype from the He lenistie era. Alexander’s foundation of the Empire was a highly important event Statue of Neptune - Vatican individual tourfor Greek art as it became the figurative language of almost the known world; at the same time Greek art came into contact and interacted with other cultures. We therefore refer to art from the era following the 5th and ,4th centuries BC not as Greek but Hellenistic art, as this name evoked tlse title given to the empires founded by Alexander’s successors in the East, who divided the territory into three great Kingdoms (the Kingdoms of Macedonia, Syria and Egypt). In the high Hellenistic age (from the 3rd century Bc) one of the characteristics of the statuary- was the variety of figurative themes represented. They did not just portray gods. mythical heroes, illustrious characters and athletes, as artists did in the classical era, they also depicted children, animals, personifications of the natural world, foreigners and barbarians. This statue of the fluvial deity is known to be the result  a series of restorations, with have allowed the statue to be used to form the higher section of the fountain for the Statue Garden with a basin made of a sarcophagus with an Amazonomacky. Which parts have been restored? The first is the right arm holding lire water-bearing vase, which is deco-rated with a ring bearing the Medici coat of arms. ‘this emblem initially caused the work to be identified as a personification of the river Arno. but in actual fact the Medici coat of arms refers to Pope Leo X (Medi-ci, 1513-1521), who probably commissioned the work’s first restoration. The second is the magnificent head, which is reminiscent a the Renais-sance style and seems similar in terms of expressiveness to the Moses sculpted by Michelangelo for Julius Ifs fimerary monument. The main episodes of the Greek mythological repertoire were often represented on sarcophagi with the protagonists being the gods who meddled in the affairs of men and the heroes who featured prominently in battles and various other undertakings. Naturally the episodes judged to be the most suitable for funerary allegories were chosen. In this case the well-known mythical theme of the Anzazonomachy seas well-suited to become a funerary allegory for soldiers’ sarcophagi as it recounts the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons fought both on foot and on horseback. leaving many soldiers dead on the battle-field. This battle took place during the Trojan War when the Amazons, the female warriors descended from the god of war Ares, sent a con-tingent led by their Queen Penthesilea to help King Priam of Troy. The Amazons were defeated by the Greeks and their Queen was killed by Achill.. The sarcophagus dates back to the 2″ century so.

 

  • Laocoon Cabinet (Gabinetto del Laocoonte)   Statuary   group   of  the  Laocon As tradition has it, the Trojan priest Laocoon and his two sons were killed by terrible serpents sent from the sea by Athena and Poseidon. The priest had
    Statua del Laoconte - Vatican museum tour
    Laoconte – Vatican museum tour

    objected to letting the wooden horse into the city of Tmy, advising instead to loan it. It had been left as a votive offering to Athena from the Greeks, who in the mean time pretended to go away. When laced with this wondrous sight, however, the Trojans convinced earls other to accept the horse with the Greek heroes hidden inside, sealing the city’s fate. This group of statues portrays the climactic point in which the monsters coil themselves around the ill-fated heroes’ bodies. Thereafter, Laocoon be-came an emblematic and tragic example of what would happen to those who opposed the inevitable course of events, in this case the events which foretold that Troy should be destroyed and that Aeneas would emerge from the flames to start a new family line with its descendents destined to found the city of Rome. This work of art was foetid in 1506 on Esquiline Hill in the area where the emperor Nero’s Donuts Aurea formerly stood. It was immediately acquired by Julius 11 who placed it in the famous gar-den of tile Belvedere Palace, marking the beginning of the formation of the renowned group of statues. As we have seen the !Aomori. group was full of important symbolic meanings. It is the starting point of a specifi-cally thought-out route which continues with the Apollo (who fought on the Trojans`side) moving on to the Venus Felix ….

 

  • The marble “zoo”
    After the Octagonal Cowlyard we come to the Room of the Animals (Sala degli Animali)  where we can admire a real zoological museum made of marble, that is to say a rich animalistic repertoire which also includes imaginary and exotic animals. Some are ancient while others have been significantly restored or resculpted by restorers and sculptors front the 18″‘ century. Hellenistic sculptors
The marble zoo - Vatican museum individual tour
The marble zoo – Vatican individual tour

were open to all kinds of figurative subjects and they particularly focussed on animals. partly due to more advanced scientific knowledge about their appearance and behaviour. The Hellenistic era was characterised by a great interest in the sciences and a predilection for carrying out all kinds of experiments in all fields of knowledge With people studying mathematics, geometry, geography, astronomy, medicine and botany. Moreover, art came to take on the characteristics of a mirror reflecting new developments. So why create a marble roof Its foundation was un-doubtedly favoured by 18 ,century naturalistic interests, in line with the new horizons reached by biological sciences and in light of the new encyclopaedic culture of the Enlightenment. As mentioned previously. some of the works of art here have been heavily restored, so this small museum within a museum can also be studied in terms of the trend for collecting rare and exotic objects as well as for the decorative tastes of the 10th century and the history of restoration. In a small loggia on the right, to the north. there is a magnificent bust of Pius VI contemplating his museum and little marble zoo. At the end of the 181″ century this MOM was known by,two names, the Room of the Rivers (Station (lei Vituni) and the Room of the Animals. Thanks to ancient prints we know that the renowned statues of the Tiber and the Nile stood here for some time. These personifications suited this environment extremely well as rivers, like animals, were considered to be part of the natural world. in contrast to the world of men. he-roes and gods, the main characters in the Pius-Clementine Museum’s other rooms. During the French plundering, however, the statues of the Tiber and the Nile were removed and taken to Paris for the new Louvre Museum, with only the Nile later finding its way back to Rome. Deprived of its rivers, the room took on the sole name of the Sala degli animali The tamed animals almost seem to come alive before our eyes, from birds, aquatic creatures, wolves, lynxes, lions and panthers to the group of deer being attacked by dogs and the sculptures of mythical beasts like the centaur, the griffin and the Minotaur. The collection is completed by figures whose names are indissolubly linked with animals, like Meleager, the brilliant hunter from Greek mythology mid Mithras killing the bull. There are also two ancient polychrome mosaics set in the paving with still life scenes of flora and fauna. last but not least, let its not forget that this repertoire of animals before its also holds a wide, though not complete, selection of marble as the sculptors used large quantities of coloured varieties to make the ani-mals seem more lifelike. This room allows its to understand the Greco-Roman world’s rapport with nature seen from a mythological, bucolic, hunting and zoological point of view, with the portrayal of exotic and rare animals extraneo to local wildlife, and also from a geological point of view, thanks to variety of the stones.

 

  • Bound Room (Sala Rotonda) The magnificent Round Room  with its hemispheric coffered vault and the eye in the centre telling in the light particularly brings to mind great Homan buildings such as baths. The niches around the walls hold-ing the statues, the mosaic and even an ancient utensil such as the large red
    Sala Rotonda - Vaticano tour
    Bound Room – Sala Rotonda – Vaticano tour

    porphyry cup all complete the effect. The statues on display here include an emperor and a hero, subjects which filled and decorated indoor and outdoor locations in ancient Rome.

 

  • Colossal statue of Claudius portrayed as Jupiter This statue comes from the centre of Lanuvium and is thought to have been one of the honorary statuses which adorned forums, porticoes and theatres. Here, Emperor Claudius (41-54 An) Colossal statue of Claudius - Vatican toursis portrayed as Jupiter. In every provincial town or colony, the Roman architects, first task was to erect a Capitolium similar to the one in Rome dedicated to the Capitoline triad ofJupiter, Juno and Minerva. Jupiter is the Roman god likened to the Greek figure of Zeus and appears as the god of the sky, the light of day, lightning and thunder: the eagle is the bird which carries Jupiter’s lightning bolt so it has become a symbol of strength and power. This is the reason why it bectune the insignia of every Roman legion and hence.

 

  •  Colossal bronze statue of Heracles The exceptional nature of this statue lies in its material — bronze. Bronze statues are rarely conserved as people often melted them down in times of metal shortages. This statue was struck by lightning and
    bronze statue of Heracles - Vatican museum excursion
    Colossal bronze statue of Heracles – Vatican excursion

    was buried in the place where it fell (as indicated by the engraved letters on the travertine slab closing off the hole) as it was probably considered inauspicious to melt down a statue struck by a celestial phenomenon. This work is thought to have been a part of the monumental complex of the Theatre of Pompey in Campus Martins, the first brick-built theatre in the city of Rome con-structed in the 1. century- Kc. Campus Nlartius was further north than the central Roman Forum area and its name reflected the military pur-pose for which it was mainly used. It was essentially a monumental area of the city; state ownership of the property and the level ground formed the ideal setting for erecting official, public buildings, hence the presence of numerous porticoes, groves, temples and buildings for performances such as theatres and baths. The statue of Hercules is thought to have been one of the many statues and decorative items. which would have adorned this magnificent plain between the Tiber. the Pincian Hill, the Capitoline Hill and the Quirinal Hill. Heracles is the most famous hero of all classical mythology and leg-ends linked to him mainly revolve arotmd the Cycle. of the twelve la-boum that is to say the tasks the hero tackled. distinguishing himself for his strength and coinage. This bronze Ileracles is depicted with some of the instantly recognisable attributes which allude to these tasks such as the club, the lion skits and the apples of Hesperides. Heracles’ weapon of choice, the club, was carved by the hero himsell.

 

  •  The Greek Cross Room  – A monumental entrance: The Greek Cross Room Originally the Greek Cross Room (Sala a Croce Greca), created by the architect Michelangelo Simonetti, formed the montunental entrance way to the Musetun of classical collections. It was built for Pope Pius VI. who reversed the previous V lolling route. In the past people laud entered the museum from the other side through the so-called Square Vestibule (with the inscription “MUSES M CLEMENTINVM” still visible on the architrave) because Pope Clement XIV had considered it to be more prac- ‘ deal, directly linked as it was to the Papal Palace through the east wing. When the new construction work began under his
    Sarcofago di Sant Elena - Madre di Costantino
    Sarcofago di Sant Elena – Madre di Costantino – musei Vaticani

    successor and more especially when the museum became public, this t)esv monumental en-trance was built, marked by the inscription Museum Pium. The great entrance gateway is trained by two gigantic Egyptian-style telamons from Hadrian’s villa. The Emperor went on numerous trips to the East, during which he absorbed the culture of the great civili-sations, hence, when he constructed Isis magnificent villa, he wanted the rooms to evoke the symbolic locations and Provinces of the Em-pire. in one area Hadrian constructed the Canopus, a vast space symbolising Egypt with the architecture forming a monumental map of the country with decorative items and Egyptian-style statues including the abovementioned telamons. Telamons were human-shape pillars and usually portrayed the god Osiris, the guardian of the ondervvorld, so they became also known as “Osiris pillars”. These telamons, crowned by capitals similar to the typical Egyptian capita in the form of lotus flowers, have a headdress and a short. skirt an their rigid and frontal stance is typical of Egyptian statues, blending in with the other architectural elements around them. Similar tela-mons decorate the great shrine of Isis (the Sister/wife of Osiris) and Serapis (the Roman Osiris) in Campus Martins. The “Egyptian-style-trend spread through Rome also touching upon religion. It was not difficult to find cults which had originated its Ancient Egypt in Rome and consequently it was equally comm.on to find shrines linked to their worshipping practices with architecture and adornments which invariably evoked this ancient civilisation.

 

  • Obelisks in Rome Pink granite obelisks were usually placed in pairs at the entrances to Egypt, temples and can be interpreted as symbols of the sun as they were thou& to be rays of sun turned into stone.This extremely hard stone was also asso-ciated with the god of the sun and as being a “Son of the Sun” was one of the royal prerogatives, many Pharaohs’ sarcophagi were made of granite. In 30 so
    Obelisc Laterano - Rome
    Obelisco a San Giovanni Laterano – Roma

    when Egypt became a Roman province, the obelisks began to be transport-ed to Rome.They were later forgotten, but gained a new lease of life in the Rome of the Popes. From the 16′ century onwards thirteen obelisks were “rediscovered” and erected in some of Rome’s famous squares. Their use in an urban setting is thought to be attributable to Sixtus V (Pereta. 1585-1590). He monumentalised symbolic squares in key places in the city by positioning obelisks there, and placed crosses at their peaks as a testimony of the continuity between pagan and Christian Rome. One noteworthy exam-ple is the obelisk in the centre of St. Peter’s Square, which was transported there by the architect Domenico Fontana on a wooden tower made of oak This obelisk was brought to Rome by the Emperor Caligula (37-41 AD) and originally positioned in the middle of the wall separating the oval track of the private circus linked to the Horti, the renowned imperial gardens in theVatican where the apostle Peter was martyred. Some of the obelisks transported to Rome can now be found in Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano (New Kingdom); in Piazza del Popolo (New Kingdom): behind the apse in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore: in Piazza della Minerva (remounted on a base in the shape of a small elephant designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini); and in Piazza Montecicorio.

 

  • THE GALLERY OF MAPS
    As we leave the Belvedere Palace and move down the long gallery on the second floor which connects the Papal Palace and the Sistine Chapel, we can admire, ha
THE GALLERY OF MAPS - Vatican museum tour
THE GALLERY OF MAPS – Vatican individual tours

one part of the corridor, the cycle of mural paintings dedi-cated to the Maps. The main figures behind its design and creation at the end of the 16h century were Pope Gregory XIII (Boncompagni, 1572-1585), who wanted to dedicate a cartographic picture to the NI. hole of Italy, and the cosmog-rapher and mathematician lgnazio Danti. who painted the cartoons of all the geographical panels and managed the whole project. Girolamo Muziano and Cesare Nebbia coordinated a small army of painters and stucco decorators. The “signatures” of the two protagonists are clearly recognisable: the Pope’s coat of arms, a golden dragon on a red background placed over the entrance and exit to the Gallery, and the carllouche in which Tgnazio Danti signs the project, discernible on the first map when entering

Italy - THE GALLERY OF MAPS - Vatican museum tours
Italian peninsula – THE GALLERY OF MAPS – Vatican private tours

from the right, north of the Sallentina Hydramti Terra (Southern Puglia). The innovative nature of the Gallery The custom of decorating the walls of monumental buildings with depictions,of maps can he traced hack to ancient Rome. This trend continued throughout the Middle Ages hal when compared with similar rooms from the time, the Vatican Gallery laid claim to undisputed originality both in terms of its considerable size (120 metres long) and more es-pecially its display concept. The maps of Italy were set out along the walls in such a way as to form a three-dimensional model of the whole peninsula. The two long walls hold the regions touching the Adriatic coast on the right and those touching the Tyrrhenian Sea on the left. The cartographer Danti prepared the cartoons of the 40 panels he and Pope.

 

  • THE PAPAL PALACE
    Hen was the first part of the Papal Palace built? In view of the ancient ,irigins of the very first building and all the extensions which have been .shied over time, it is extremely difficult to isolate the original structure. In actual fact the Popes only lived solely in the Vatican after the Avignon Exile (1305-1377) and consequently Nicholas V’s reign (1447-1433) and the construction work he carried out on the Palace coincided with the beginning of a new chapter as far as the Papal
Apostolic Palace - Vatican individual tour
Apostolic Palace – Vatican tours

residence was concerned. Even when the popes lived its the Lateran, they considered the Vatican area to be of the utmost importance and soon acquired a residence next to St. Peter’s Basilica which would allow them to be near the Prince of the Apostles’ tomb. The earliest available information dates back to the 5. century AD to the thne of Pope Symmachus (498-514 AD), who built the first buildings destra temple of St. Peter’s, that is to say along the north and south sides of the Basilica, although it seems as if these buildings fell into disrepair soon afterwards. When Pope Leo IV (847-855) had a series of great walls built, the Vatican area started to become a safer place than the Lateran, but it was only after the year 1000 that a palalium novum was constructed on Symnsa-chus’ old avorksile, extended years later by Pope Innocent Ill (Lotario di Segni, 1198-1216). This construction stood on the slopes of

THE PAPAL PALACE - VATICANO
THE PAPAL PALACE – Vatican individual tours

the mons sac-corum, a hill to the north of St. Peter’s which is now the Courtyard of St. Damasus (Cottle di San Damaso). It looked like a small fortress and had a tower which corresponds to the current Chapel of Nicholas V (Cap-pella Niccolina). The building grew considerably under Pope Nicholas III (Orsini, 1277-1280), who began the construction work near the Parrot Cotut.curd (Car-tile del Pappagallo) (1). II was at arotuld this titne that the Vatican began to be thought of as a possible permanent papal residence, especially con-sidering how important it was for a Pope to live next to St. Peter’s tomb. Consequently, the Popes began to live permanently at the Vatican and its an intentional move, none of the official acts issued by Nicholas III are dated from the Lateran. The only part of Nicholas II s building open to visitors today corresponds to the Chiaroscuro Room (Sala dei Chiaroscuri) in the Chapel of Nicholas V and the Hall of Constantine (Sala di Costantino). The Palace of Nicholas III remained unrutished. Finally, there was apomeriunz next. to Palace, a walled orchard-garden which stretched from the mons saccortun to the lop of a hill to the north which is now roughly equivalent to Bramante’s great Belvedere Courtyard. courageously tackled the problem of the deterioration of St. Peter’s Basilica, calling in the architect Leon Battist.a Alberti and, as mentioned above, lie was an active contributor to the enlargement of the Papal Palace with the construction of a wing which closed off its perimeter creating the Parrot Courtyard. The new north wing built by Nicholas V included grana-des and nine cellars on the ground floor, the rooms now occupied by the Borgia Apartment on Use second floor, and Julius II’s apartment frescoed by Raphael above.

 

  • THE CHAPEL OF NICHOLAS V  The Chapel of Nicholas V, decorated by Fra Angelico, is a splen-did commemoration of the Papal Palace’s ornamentation during Niels, alas V’s era. It is cited in historical documents as “pars-a et secrete  (small and secret) and it was destined for the private or semi-private use of the Pope. It was accessible from the Studiolo-Cubicolo (small study/private bed chamber), situated its the morn nest to the small chapel, and constituted the
    Beato Angelico - Vatican tours
    Beato Angelico – THE CHAPEL OF NICHOLAS V – The Vatican individual excursions

    Palace’s most secluded wing. This lit-tle chapel is very different from the medieval Great Chapel (Cappel-la Nlagna), undoubtedly constructed before Nicholas V’s time, which. from the second half of the 16″. century onwards, took on the llama of the Sistine Chapel (12), destined for hosting events on the litur cal and ceremonial calendar of the Papal court. The chapel octopi the third and fourth floors of the military tower constructed for I nocent III, and was then incorporated into the new Vatican residen built by Nicholas V It is a rectangular-plan chaisel with a cross va and takes its name from the Pope who ordered the area to be fresco by Friar Giovanni da Fiesole known as Fra Angelico (Beata Angelico one of the greatest painters of the 15th century. This artist’s real n was Guidolino di Pietro but when he took the habit of St. Domenic the convent of Fiesole Ise also took the name Giovanni (John). Ile came known as Angelico .d then Beato (Blessed) due to the sancti of his conduct and the celestial beauty of the figures its

    The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen - Vatican museum tour
    The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen – Vatican museum tours

    his paintings. How is the pictorial composition of the chapel organised? In line wi mediaeval customs, a painted base runs around the lower section of room with false drapes hanging from nails. Rows of compositions, one above the other, narrate the main events its the life of the deacon St. phen, the first martyr of the Eastern Church, and the deacon St. Law-rence, the first inartyT of the Western Church. Who were the deacons of the early Church? The deacons were instituted both to carry out general charitable and benevolent activities and give assistance during Baptisms 1 and Eucharistic celebrations. The Doctors of the Church such as St. Au-gustine and St. Thomas are It in the upper corners its niches. The vault is divided into four sections by the ribs of the cross vaulting, holding the Four Erangelists with their symbols: Luke and the Bull, Matthew and the Angel. Mark and the Lion and John and Ilse Eagle. The Stories of St. Stephen and St. Lawrence are divided onto two levels on the side walls and the entrance wall by a string-cotu-se cornice between the last two floors of Innocent Ill’s tower. A recent restoration returned this cycle to its original splendour, conveying the strength of the faith in which Fra Angelico deeply believed; he sass- spiritual meaning and the divine order of the universe shining its everything and he was aisle to communicate it through his paintings. These are the only paintings to have survived from among those by this great master its the Vatican.

 

  • THE SISTINE CHAPEL
    The construction of the chapel. The new chapel was built for Sixtus IV and also bears his name. it stands in the place of an earlier mediaeval building which fulfilled the saute role of Papal Chapel. Based on architectural inspections carried Cappella Sistina - Vaticanoout on the new building it has been revealed that the previous one would have been an imposing structure with the same rectangular lay-out and dimensions (40 metres long and 13 metres wide). We do not have any information about its height and type of roofing but we lassos it was situated among the very first buildings of the Papal Palace built by Pope Nicholas Ill (Orsini, 1277-1280). Besides the topographical similarity of the Sistine Chapel  to the previous building, the mediaeval walls were incorporated
  • Cappella Sistina - Vatican individual tour
    Cappella Sistina – individual tour of the Vatican

    at least up to a certain point while the Sistine brickwork starts above the windows, reaching a total height of about 20 metres. The ffenellated exterior of the Sistine Chapel reveals its double pia-pose as a chapel and a fortress. Due to repeated structural problems over the following centuries, the exterior walls were pro-gressively covered with buttresses and a new brick wall. The section illustrated below shows the various stages of the Sistine Chap-el’s construction. The barrel vaults of three rooms wills Sixtus IV’s coal of quills can be seen below the paving, the elevation of the actual Chapel is set out on three floors and the rooms under the roof, which would become the guardhouse, looked over the open projecting gangway. Who was the architect of the Sistine Chapel? In historical sources two names are mentioned – Barrio Pontelli and Giovannino de Dolci. Pontelli is named by the wellknown artists’ biographer, Giorgio Vasari, as the designer of the Chapel. Giovannino Dolci, according to archive documents, receives) payments for the Chapel’s construc-tion although he is thought to have been a sort of building contra, tor wills the capacity to set up a large construction site rather than an architect

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Tarot Garden – Giardino dei Tarocchi –  Niki de Saint Phalle

Influenced by Gaudí’s Parc Güell in Barcelona, and Parco dei Mostri in Bomarzo, as well as Palais Idéal by Ferdinand Cheval, and Watts Towers by Simon Rodia, Saint Phalle decided that she wanted to make something similar; a monumental sculpture park created by a woman. In 1979, she acquired some land in Garavicchio, Tuscany, about 100 km north-west of Rome along the coast. Niki de Saint Phalle has created a large number of “Nanas” in her career with different materials, in different shapes and dimensions. The garden, called Giardino dei Tarocchi in Italian, contains sculptures of the symbols found on Tarot cards. The garden took many years, and a considerable sum of money, to complete. It opened in 1998, after nearly 20 years of work. Her main benefactor of the period was the Agnelli family.

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The Maremma — the coastal plain that runs south from the Piombino headland — was the northern heartland of the Etruscans, whose drainage and irrigation canals turned it into an area of huge agricultural potential. Their good work, however, was largely lost under the Romans, who abandoned much of the land and left it to revert to marsh — a decline that continued through the Middle Ages, when war and further dereliction turned the region into a malarial swamp. For years, virtually the only inhabitants were migrant charcoal burners and shepherds (who in summer abandoned the infested lowlands for the hill-villages of Amiata — and the famous butteri, the cowboys who tend the region’s oxen and horses. Modern attempts to revive the Maremma were started in 1828 by Grand Duke Leopoldo of Tuscany, who …. Maremma tuscany excursion

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    Ansedonia – Tuscany car tours

    Ansedonia and Lago di Burano ANSEDONIA crouches under a rocky crag at the end of the Tombolo di Feniglia. Peppered with holiday villas, it has a long beach and, on the hill-top above the village, the remains of Cosa, founded by the Romans in 273 BC as a frontier post against the Etruscans. It was one of their most important commercial centres in the area until its population — according to the historian …… Ansedonia tour

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    Capalbio – Tuscany car excursions

    Capalbio Stranded in empty country, the hill-village of CAPALBIO is virtually unknown to outsiders, though not to Rome’s cultural and political elite, many of whom have homes in the locality. Most are attracted by the almost perfectly medieval interior, which at night is a deathly quiet maze of streets straight out of the Middle Ages. Views are superb, and though there’s little to see apart from a few frescoes and the Aldobrandeschi fortifications, it definitely warrants ……. Capalbio individual excursion from Rome

  • The island of Giglio – Isola del Giglio – Tuscany Day car tour from Rome
    Isola del Giglio - Tuscany car tours
    Isola del Giglio – Tuscany car tours

    The largest of the Tuscan islands after Elba, GIGLIO is visited by an ever-increasing number of foreign tourists and is . popular with Romans that in high season there’s standing room only on the boats. Yet it’s well worth making the effort to stay on this fabulous island. The rush is fairly short-lived, most visitors are day-trippers, and few of them explore the tracks acr6ig tliaiispoilt interior, a mix of barren rock and reforest-ed upland. The island is rich in fauna such as peregrine falcons, mouflon, kestrels and buzzards, and in wild flowers too — this is the only place outside North Africa to shel-ter wild mustard, and the sole spot in Tuscany to support the yellow flowers of artemisia …… The island of Giglio

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Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

30 TOP VIP PRIVATE CAR TOURS in ITALY from ROME and other towns – WITH PRIVATE DRIVER GUIDE

30 Car tours in Italy – Rome – Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria, Trentino, Veneto

Excursions with private guide in:
Day  car tours in Italy with driver guide  from Rome and other touwns
Transfer and private tours from Civitavecchia port – Rome airport
PRIVATE TOUR FROM CIVITAVECCHIA ROME with driver guide
FIUMICINO ROME AIRPORT PRIVATE CAR TOUR with driver guide
Transfer – Rome Airport  and  Civitavecchia with driver guide
MUSIC DANCE and FSHION in ITALY RusRim original video
Contemporary  dance in Rome
Italy fashion – VIDEO
Reservation contacts – Private tours in Lazio, Tuscany – Umbria – Abruzzo, Campania, Veneto, Trentino with licensed private guide
+39 389 5975 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 44 83 644

Vico lake and Sutri – Private day tour around Rome

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

Vico and Sutri private car tour from Rome

Individual car excursion from Rome with english private guide Eur 60 / h Max 6 pax

sutri fontanasala delle mappepalazzo farnese caprarola

Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.

Viko lake – Lago di Vico, Sutri, Caprarola and Viterbo tour VIDEO with original soft music by Adel Karanov private guide in Italy

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Exclusive tours in Italy RusRim.com

ROME CAR TOURS and AROUND ROME – RUSRIM.COM
Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

30 TOP VIP PRIVATE CAR TOURS in ITALY from ROME and other towns – WITH PRIVATE DRIVER GUIDE

30 Car tours in Rome – Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria

Excursions with private guide in:
Day  car tours in Italy with driver guide  from Rome and other touwns
Transfer and private tours from Civitavecchia port – Rome airport
PRIVATE TOUR FROM CIVITAVECCHIA ROME with driver guide
FIUMICINO ROME AIRPORT PRIVATE CAR TOUR with driver guide
Transfer – Rome Airport  and  Civitavecchia with driver guide
MUSIC DANCE and FSHION in ITALY RusRim original video
Contemporary  dance in Rome
Italy fashion – VIDEO
Reservation contacts – Private tours in Lazio, Tuscany – Umbria – Abruzzo, Campania, Veneto, Trentino with licensed private guide
+39 389 5975 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 44 83 644

Sutri – Caprarola – Vico Lake – Private tour around Rome

+39 329 448 3644   info@rusrim.com  +39 389 59 75 184

LAZIO DAY TOUR FROM ROME

Labyrinth of Time: Etruscan city of Sutri, Caprarola Palace and the Vico Lake individual car private tour

North Lazio – Viterbo VT – Around Rome private car tours with local private guide

Individual Car tour from Rome Eur 60/h Max 6 pax english guide AROUND ROME INDIVIDUAL PRIVATE VIP TOUR with GUIDE and CAR or on request with only ENGLISH speaking DRIVER

Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.

sutri tombe etruschegayserLago di Vico

North Lazio luxury private toursaround Rome

palazzo farnese caprarolasala delle mappesutri fontana  Vico Viterboterme papalisutri anfiteatro

Daily tour from Rome: Vico – Viterbo – Sutri – Caprarola 

Video with Original soft music  by Adel Karanov 

Vico – Sutri – Caprarola – PRIVATE TOUR AROUND ROME WITH LOCAL GUIDE AND CAR Original music by Adel Karanov private guide in Rome

Car tour from and around Rome

ROME CAR TOURS – RUSRIM.COM
Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

30 TOP VIP PRIVATE CAR TOURS in ITALY from ROME and other towns – WITH PRIVATE DRIVER GUIDE

30 Car tours in Rome – Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria

Excursions with private guide in:
Day  car tours in Italy with driver guide  from Rome and other touwns
Transfer and private tours from Civitavecchia port – Rome airport
PRIVATE TOUR FROM CIVITAVECCHIA ROME with driver guide
FIUMICINO ROME AIRPORT PRIVATE CAR TOUR with driver guide
Transfer – Rome Airport  and  Civitavecchia with driver guide
Reservation contacts – Private tours in Lazio, Tuscany – Umbria – Abruzzo, Campania, Veneto, Trentino with licensed private guide
+39 389 5975 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 44 83 644

Italy private tours with driver guide

+39 389 5975 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 44 83 644

The best day private tours of  Italy : Rome, Venice, Veneto, Trentino – Umbria and Tuscany with driver guide 

Half and Full Day tours with private art guides

PRIVATE TOURS of ROME – AROUND ROME – Tuscany – Veneto and Trentino departing from  -Milan – Venice Florence and Rome

Excursions from Rome or Florence in BulgarianFrench, English, Russian and Ukrainian

Rome  Tuscany and central Italy  with driver guide

ROMA VIDEO – Private tour of Rome – Original electronic music by Adel Karanov official composer of Gucci in 2005-6  andprivate guide in Rome and central Italy

Individual, daily, private car sightseeing tours in Rome, Vatican and the regions of LAZIO (Tivoli, Castelli Romani, Tarquinia) and Tuscany (Florence, Siena, CapalbioArgentario, Pisa), UMBRIA – (Orvieto, Assisi, Perugia) ABRUZZO (Gran Sasso, L’Aquila) CAMPANIA (Pompeii and Amalfi) with a English French – RussianBulgarian, Ukrainian and German  guide – personal driver 

Rome private tours
Rome private car tours

Rome one-day guided private tour experience lasting minimum 3 hours or more BY CAR for individuals and groups of up to 5 people.

Private tours of main squares, fountains, churches and museums of Rome, Florence, Siena, Assisi and others, selected for you. The tour includes short walks on foot for visits of monuments and stops for taking pictures and a lunch or a coffee break. The sequence of monuments and their choice will display a historical and artistic evolution of the Eternal City. As well as a perfect overview of ​​the different types of styles in the arts of architecture and sculpture and painting. Many monuments, private art collections, entrances to palaces are offered exclusively by RUSRIM. tour guides.
Our guides are also graduates having obtained painting, dance, music or literature diplomas and are active artists working in Italy.

Тhe Italian Renaissance VIDEO 3D and original music by Adel Karanov tour guide in Italy

ROMA

Private car tours around Rome – video

rome private tours
Rome private tours with local guide

VIDEO 3D Colosseum private tour  –  Original music by Adel Karanov – voice Eliana Tumminelli  – COLOSSEUM PRIVATE TOUR

Luxury private car tours around ROME – LAZIO – TUSCANY – UMBRIA, CAMPANIA  and ABRUZZO with private local licensed guides

ROME and AROUND ROME PRIVATE TOURS

Day tours in Italy with driver guide  from Rome

 

Daily tours in central Italy: Rome, Lazio, Umbria, Tuscany ,Abruzzo and Campania with CAR

VIP car  Private tours from Rome around Rome – Tuscany – Umbria Abruzzo – Campania

Inside the guided tour experience you can choose to visit important archaeological areas like dungeons, catacombs, ancient walls, sacred places and secret areas accessible to limited number of people. The collection of Greek and Roman classical sculptures offering sculptures of emperors, athletes, mythological figures and ancient deities can be viewed in an exclusive way.
During the guided tour in Rome, Florence, Siena and the Roman castles, you can have a break for tasting of local food preferred by Roman elite.
In summer the most popular organic ice cream shop in Rome is a place to drop in.

VIDEO ROMA PANORAMIC PRIVATE TOUR OF ROME

Original music – Aria modale Italiana for soprano and harp

Original music by Adel Karanov – Soprano Mila Pavlova

ROME with driver guide

Find the right exclusive excursion for you! You click and we guide you in Rome and Vatican at a convenient price! We also offer a:

FLEXIBILE PROGRAMME  INSIDE TOURS OF MONUMENTS
SMALL GROUPS OF UP TO 6 PEOPLE
INDIVIDUAL CAR WITH A DRIVER AN EXPERIENCED GUIDE

Choose your local guide in Rome and central Italy Lazio and Tuscany online!

ALL VIDEO TOURS, ARTS AND MONUMENTS IN ITALY

 

Villa Borghese - Rome private tour
Villa Borghese – Rome private tour

TUSCANY PRIVATE TOURS

Florence Siena Pisa with  english driver guide

private tours tuscany from rome
private tours tuscany from rome

The Renaissance in Florence – Private tour

UFFIZI and THE FLORENCE ATMOSPHERE

Original soft electronic music by Adel Karanov composer and private guide in Rome

FIRENZE – FLORENCE PRIVATE TOUR

SIENA PRIVATE TOUR

siena private daily tour - palio
siena private tour with car

CAPALBIO PRIVATE TOUR

Saint Phalle – Capalbio Private car tour from Rome

Individual excursions with private guide in Italy: Rome – Lazio and Tuscany – Florence, Siena and Arezzo

LAZIO – PRIVATE TOURS AROUND ROME

THE TIVOLI FOUNTAINS VILLA D’ESTE

TIVOLI – PRIVATE TOUR FROM ROME WITH CAR

Original electronic music Soft Atmospheric water music  by Adel Karanov

Video with original soft music – Art tours around Rome and central Italy (Lazio – Tuscany – Umbria – Campania – Abruzzo)

ROME VIP – INDIVIDUAL LUXURY PRIVATE TOURS 

Galleria Colonna – Musica elettronica Adel Karanov – composer and private guide in Rome 

 

CASTELLI ROMANI PRIVATE TOUR AROUND ROME

Culinari wine luxury private car tour

Rome Wine Private tour Castelli Romani – Video by Franco Butiglieri

 

UMBRIA PRIVATE TOURS

Orvieto and Bolsena car tours

Bolsena private car tour from Rome

ORVIETO PRIVATE TOUR

ORVIETO PRIVATE CAR TOUR FROM ROME

orvieto

Orvieto private car tours

VILLA GIULIA – ROME PRIVATE TOUR

Villa-Giulia-Rome private car toursjpg
Villa-Giulia-Rome private car tour

 

Click the images for watch the video and the tour details

VATICAN PRIVATE TOUR , WITH LOCAL GUIDE

vatican private tours

TIVOLI PRIVATE TOUR

tivoli private tour
tivoli private tour

ROME PRIVATE TOUR with LOCAL GUIDE DRIVER

Villa Borghese - Rome private tour
Villa Borghese – Rome private tour

ROME PRIVATE TOUR

Rome private tours with local guide
ROME PRIVATE TOUR

Luxury private tours of Rome with local guide

rome private guides
Rome private guides – Luxury private tours

Private car tours of Rome with local guide

rome car tours
Rome car tours

 

piazza di spagna - rome private tours
piazza di spagna – rome private tours

Private tour with local guide in Rome

palazzo colonna Rome private tours
Private tour with local guide in Rome

Private tours around Rome

inusual rome private tour
Private tour around Rome

Daily private tours in Rome with guide and driver

Colosseum Rome private tour
Daily private tour with guide and driver
Private car tours: UMBRIA and NORTH LAZIO from Rome – Center Italy
Orvieto and Bolsena private tour from Rome with private guide
Vico lake and Sutri – Private day tour around Rome with private guide
Sutri – Caprarola – Vico Lake – Private tour around Rome with driver guide
Perugia – Umbria Private day tour with driver guide – car tour
Spoleto – Umbria Private Day tour with driver guide – car tour
Amalfi Positano Sorrento Pompeii – private car tour from Rome

VENEZIA PRIVATE TOUR

Venice Private tour  – 3D Video with original music

PRIVATE CAR TOURS OF ROME and AROUND ROME – RUSRIM.COM
Small group tours in minivans ensuring the highest level of comfort. Our vehicles are fully equipped with all the options required for  long trips, including air conditioning.
An English speaking private guide will be at your disposal for the whole day and will arrange the most satisfactory tour with you.

 

30 TOP VIP PRIVATE CAR TOURS in ITALY from ROME and other towns – WITH PRIVATE DRIVER GUIDE

30 Car tours in Rome – Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria

Excursions with private guide in:

 

Day  car tours in Italy with driver guide  from Rome and other touwns

 

Reservation contacts – Private tours in Lazio, Tuscany – Umbria – Abruzzo, Campania, Veneto, Trentino with licensed private guide
+39 389 5975 184  info@rusrim.com +39 329 44 83 644